Nepal Transport and Warehousing Company Limited ,Open Competitive Written Examination 2079/11/18

Public Service Commission

Nepal Transport and Warehousing Company Limited

Technician, Fifth, Senior Assistant, Computer Operator

Post, Open Competitive Written Examination 2079/11/18

1. The slide that is used to introduce a topic and set the tone for the presentation is called the..... slide.
A) Table
B) Graph
C) Bullet
D) Title

2. An advantage of the database management approach is that......
A) data is dependent on programs
B) data redundancy increases
C) data is integrated and can be accessed by multiple programs
D) data is never lost

3. Which of the following store command to retrieve data from database?
A) Forms
B) Reports
C) Queries
D) Tables

4. What is the size of 'Yes/No' field?
A) 1 bit

B) 1 byte
C) 2 bit
D) 2 byte

5. Which option allows you to build a new table by entering data directly into the
datasheet, in the case of database application?

A) Datasheet View
B) Worksheet View
C) Design View
D) Form View

6. Which of the following keys is generally used to represent the relationships between the tables?
A) Primary key
B) Foreign key
C) Secondary key
D) Super key

7. Which of the following attributes is valid for <table> tag?

8. Which program is used by web clients to view the web pages?
A) Web browser
B) Protocol
C) Web server
D) Search engine

9. Correct HTML tag to left align the content inside a table cell is .....
A) <tdleft>
B) <td lalign="left">
C) <td align="left">
D) <td leftalign>

10. Choose the correct HTML tag to make a text bold.
A) <b>
B) <bold>
C) <bb>
D) <bld>

11. A collection of hyperlinked documents on the internet forms the .....
A) E-mail System
B) World Wide Web
C) Mailing List
D) Hypertext Markup Language

12. The term IANA, which is a popular term among network engineers, stands for......

A) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

B) Internal Assigned Numbers Authority

C) Internet Associations Naming Authority

D) Internet Address Naming Authority

13. Which of the following network utilities is used to obtain domain name or IP address mapping?





14. A client of the DNS (Domain Name System) application is called .....
A) DNS Client
B) DNS Server
C) DNS Resolver
D) DNS Requester

15...... can be a software program or a hardware device that filters all data packets coming through the internet.
A) Antivirus
B) Firewall
C) Malware
D) Cookies

16. Identity can be established during authentication with ......
A) Password
B) Token
C) Biometric
D) All of the above

17. Which of the following DDOS in mobile systems wait for the owner to trigger the cyber-attack?
A) Botnets
B) Programs
C) Viruses
D) Worms

18. Which of the following ensures that the message is real, accurate and safeguards from unauthorized user modification during the transmission?
A) Authentication
B) Non-repudiation
C) Integrity
D) Availability

19. Who is authorized body to issue digital signature certificate to public?
A) Controller
B) Deputy Controller
C) Director General of Department of IT
D) Certifying Authority

20. Where is the Disaster Recovery (DR) site of the Government Integrated Data Center (GIDC) established?
A) Biratnagar
B) Butwal
C) Hetauda
D) Nepalgunj

21. In data processing, MIPS stands for......
A) Million Inputs Per Second
B) Million Instructions Per Second
C) Mega Information Processing System
D) Micro Instructions Per Second

22. Computers use Integrated Circuit (IC) chips, which use.....
A) Silver
B) Copper
C) Gold
D) Silicon

23. Which of the following is the smallest visual element on a video monitor?
A) Pixel
B) Character
C) Byte
D) Bit

24. Which of the following memories has the shortest access time?
A) Cache Memory
B) Magnetic Bubble Memory
C) Magnetic Core Memory

25. The central processing unit is located in the .....
A) Hard disk
B) Monitor
C) Memory unit
D) System unit

26...... is used to transfer between CPU and cache.
A) Block transfer
B) Word transfer
C) Associative transfer
D) Set transfer

27. Which of the following is not an audio file extension?
C) .mpa

28. Which of the following is designed to control the operations of a computer?
A) User
B) Application Software
C) System Software
D) Utility Software

29. Which of the following is not an operating system?
A) Windows
B) Linux
C) Oracle

30. Which command is used to setup hard disk?
A) loadfix
B) expand
C) share
D) fdisk

31. Which is not the core function of the operating system?
A) Memory management
B) Application management
C) Disk management
D) Virus protection

32. What is the shortcut key used to refresh the active windows?
A) F5
B) F6
C) F7
D) F8

33...... is not an essential component to perform mail merge operation.
A) Word Fields

B) Main Document
C) Data Source
D) Merge Fields

34. Finding a text to change and replace it with something other can be done by.....
A) Ctrl+C
B) Ctrl+F
C) Ctrl+H
D) All of the above

35. Which of the following is never placed at the top of a page by a word processing software package?
A) Running heads
B) Footers
C) Headers
D) Page numbers

36. Superscript, subscript, outline, emboss, engrave are known as ......
A) Text effects
B) Word arts
C) Font styles
D) Font effects

37. What is the purpose of gutter margin?
A) Margin that is added to the left margin when printing
B) Margin that is added to the right margin when printing
C) Margin that is added to binding side of page when printing
D) Margin that is added to the outside of the page when printing

38. In word processing, page formatting options are set on .....
A) Document
B) Page
C) Section
D) Worksheet

39. Which of the following shortcut combination opens Thesaurus?
A) Shift+F7
B) Ctrl+F7
C) Alt+F7
D) F7

40. Which of the following is an example of page orientation?
A) Landscape

B) Subscript
C) Superscript
D) A4

41. An Excel Workbook consists of...........
A) Charts
B) Worksheets
C) Workspace
D) Worksheets and Workspace

42............. help us to see patterns.
A) Charts

B) Graphs
C) Spreadsheets
D) Calculations.

43. What happens when you press Ctrl+X after selecting some cells in Excel?
A) The cell content of selected cells disappear from cell and stored in clipboard
B) The cells selected are marked for cutting
C) The selected cells are deleted and the cells are shifted left
D) The selected cells are deleted and cells are shifted up

44. Which one of the following is a 'Date and Time function' in spreadsheet?
B) MOD()
C) NOW()
D) MID()

45. In electronic spreadsheet, the value of the formula = (7-3)(1+6)/4 is .....
A) 12
B) 1.5
C) 7
D) 2.5

46. In a spreadsheet, which of the following represents the absolute cell reference?
A) B3
B) $B$3
C) B$3
D) $B3

47. In a computer, if custom format is '#,## #', then 1500 will be displayed as.....
A) 150,00
B) 15,00
C) 1,500
D) 15,000

48. 'TRUE' or 'FALSE' is not displayed as a result for ..... function.

49. Which of the following shortcut key is used to start the slideshow?
A) Using F5 key
B) Using F3 key
C) Using F1 key
D) Using F6 key

50...... is special effect in PowerPoint Presentation which is used to introduce slides.
A) Animation effect
B) Transition effect
C) Custom animation effect
D) Transitional animation effect

-The End-


Public Service Commission

Nepal Transport and Warehousing Company Limited

Technician, Fifth, Senior Assistant, Computer Operator

Post, Open Competitive Written Examination 2079/11/18


Subject: Service Related

                                      Section: "A"                                               50 Marks

1. Define Software. Briefly explain about its types with examples. Discuss the importance of cache memory in computer system.                                         2+5+3

= Software is a collection of programs, data, and instructions that tell a computer how to perform specific tasks. It is the non-tangible component of a computer system that enables users to interact with the hardware and perform various operations.

There are two main types of software:

a) System Software: System software provides the necessary interface and services to manage the computer system. Examples include operating systems (e.g., Windows, macOS, Linux), device drivers, and utility programs like disk management tools and antivirus software.

b) Application Software: Application software is designed for specific tasks or applications. It helps users perform specific functions, such as word processing, spreadsheet analysis, web browsing, and graphic design. Examples of application software include Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), Photoshop, web browsers like Chrome and Firefox, and video editing software like Adobe Premiere Pro.


Cache memory is a small, high-speed memory component that stores frequently accessed data and instructions. It is located between the CPU and main memory. The importance of cache memory lies in its ability to significantly improve system performance by reducing the average time taken to access data. When the CPU needs data, it first checks the cache memory. If the data is found in the cache (cache hit), it can be retrieved much faster than if it had to be fetched from the main memory (cache miss). This caching mechanism helps in reducing the latency and improving the overall efficiency of the computer system.


2. What are the functions of operating systems? Write any five system tools and their usage.                                                                                                               5+5

= The functions of an operating system are:

a) Process Management: The operating system manages processes, which are instances of running programs. It allocates system resources, schedules processes, and ensures their proper execution.

b) Memory Management: The operating system manages the computer's memory by allocating and deallocating memory space to different programs and processes. It keeps track of memory usage and optimizes memory utilization.

c) File System Management: The operating system provides a file system that organizes and manages files on storage devices. It handles file creation, deletion, and manipulation, as well as file access and permissions.

d) Device Management: The operating system manages input and output devices, such as keyboards, mice, printers, and disks. It provides an interface for applications to communicate with these devices.

e) User Interface: The operating system provides a user interface that allows users to interact with the computer system. This can be a command-line interface (CLI) or a graphical user interface (GUI).     


System tools are software programs that help manage and maintain the computer system. Five common system tools and their usage are:

a) Disk Cleanup: This tool scans and removes unnecessary files from the hard drive, freeing up disk space and improving system performance.

b) Task Manager: Task Manager provides information about running processes, CPU and memory usage, and allows users to monitor and manage system resources.

c) Backup and Recovery: This tool enables users to create backups of important files and restore them in case of data loss or system failure.

d) Disk Defragmenter: Disk Defragmenter rearranges fragmented data on the hard drive, optimizing file access and improving system performance.

e) System Updates: System update tools check for and install the latest software updates and patches for the operating system and other installed software, ensuring system security and stability.

3. Write down the steps for mail merge in word processing. Describe Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).                                                                         5+5

= Steps for mail merge in word processing:

Step 1: Prepare the main document: Create the main document in a word processing application (e.g., Microsoft Word) and include placeholders for the variable data that will be merged from a data source.

Step 2: Prepare the data source: Create or import a data source, such as a spreadsheet or database, that contains the variable data. Ensure that the data source has the necessary fields corresponding to the placeholders in the main document.

Step 3: Link the main document to the data source: In the word processing application, establish a connection between the main document and the data source by linking or importing the data.

Step 4: Insert merge fields: Insert merge fields or placeholders in the main document at the appropriate locations where the variable data should appear. These merge fields will be replaced with actual data during the merge process.

Step 5: Preview and merge: Preview the merged document to ensure the data is displayed correctly. Then, initiate the merge process, which will replace the merge fields with the corresponding data from the data source, generating personalized documents.


Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology that allows objects created in one application to be embedded or linked to another application. It enables data sharing and integration between different programs. With OLE, users can create complex documents that contain embedded objects from other applications, such as images, spreadsheets, or charts. OLE provides two main functionalities:

a) Object Linking: Objects can be linked between applications, meaning changes made to the source object in one application will be automatically reflected in the linked object in another application. For example, a linked chart in a Word document can be updated if the original data in Excel is modified.

b) Object Embedding: Objects can be embedded within another application, making the source object a part of the document itself. This allows users to work with the embedded object without needing the source application. For example, embedding a spreadsheet within a presentation allows the spreadsheet to be edited within the presentation without opening a separate spreadsheet application.

OLE facilitates seamless integration and data exchange between different applications, enhancing productivity and enabling the creation of dynamic and interactive documents.

4. What is a worksheet? What is the difference between cell and cell address? How do you calculate sum and average of the numbers in a row?                3+4+3

= A worksheet, also known as a spreadsheet, is a grid of cells used in spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets. It is the primary working area where users can enter and manipulate data, perform calculations, and create visual representations such as charts and graphs. A worksheet consists of columns labeled with letters (A, B, C, etc.) and rows labeled with numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.), resulting in a grid-like structure.


A cell is an individual unit within a worksheet where data can be entered or displayed. Each cell is identified by its cell address, which is a combination of its column letter and row number. For example, cell A1 refers to the cell located at the intersection of column A and row 1. The cell address uniquely identifies a cell within the worksheet.

To calculate the sum of numbers in a row, you can use the SUM function in spreadsheet software. Here's how to do it:

1. Select the cell where you want the sum to appear.

2. Enter the formula "=SUM(start_cell:end_cell)" without the quotes. Replace "start_cell" with the cell address of the first cell in the row, and "end_cell" with the cell address of the last cell in the row.

3. Press Enter to calculate the sum.

For example, if you want to calculate the sum of numbers in row 1 from column A to column E, you would enter "=SUM(A1:E1)" in the desired cell.

To calculate the average of numbers in a row, you can use the AVERAGE function. Here's how:

1. Select the cell where you want the average to appear.

2. Enter the formula "=AVERAGE(start_cell:end_cell)" without the quotes. Replace "start_cell" with the cell address of the first cell in the row, and "end_cell" with the cell address of the last cell in the row.

3. Press Enter to calculate the average.

For example, if you want to calculate the average of numbers in row 1 from column A to column E, you would enter "=AVERAGE(A1:E1)" in the desired cell.


5. Discuss the benefits of Presentation application. Explain the concept and significance of Animation effects in presentation.                                             5+5

Presentation applications, such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Google Slides, provide a platform for creating and delivering visual presentations. Some benefits of using presentation applications are:

a) Visual Appeal: Presentation applications offer a wide range of design templates, themes, and graphics to enhance the visual appeal of presentations. Users can create visually engaging slideshows with customized layouts, fonts, colors, and images.

b) Organization and Structure: Presentation applications help users organize their content into logical sections and sequences. They provide tools for creating slide transitions, headings, bullet points, and numbering to maintain a clear and structured flow of information.

c) Multimedia Integration: Presentation applications allow users to integrate multimedia elements like images, videos, and audio into their slides. This enables the incorporation of dynamic and interactive content, making presentations more engaging and impactful.

d) Collaboration and Sharing: Presentation applications support collaboration features, allowing multiple users to work on the same presentation simultaneously. Users can share their presentations with others, either by sending the file or by presenting it remotely through online platforms.

e) Presenter Tools: Presentation applications often include presenter tools that offer features like presenter notes, timers, and slide navigation. These tools help presenters deliver their presentations smoothly and confidently.


Animation effects in presentations involve adding motion and transitions to slide elements, such as text, images, or objects. They bring dynamism and visual interest to the presentation, making it more engaging for the audience. Animation effects can be used to:

a) Emphasize Key Points: Animations can be applied to highlight important information or key points on a slide. For example, using an animation to bring attention to a specific bullet point or to reveal data step by step.

b) Enhance Visual Flow: Animations can be used to create a smooth visual flow between slides or within a slide. Transitions like fade-ins, fly-ins, or fades help in seamless transitions between content, improving the overall presentation experience.

c) Visual Storytelling: Animation effects can be utilized to tell a story or demonstrate a process. By animating elements in a sequential manner, complex concepts can be simplified and presented in a more engaging and understandable way.

d) Maintain Audience Interest: Animations add an element of surprise and interactivity to the presentation, helping to maintain the audience's attention. Well-timed and purposeful animations can prevent monotony and make the presentation more memorable.

The significance of animation effects lies in their ability to convey information effectively, create visual appeal, and engage the audience throughout the presentation. However, it's important to use animations judiciously, ensuring they align with the content and do not distract from the main message.



                                      Section: "B"                                               50 Marks

6. What is Database Management System (DBMS)? Discuss the types of relationships in database. Distinguish between formatting and validating field data with examples.                                                                                         2+4+4

= A Database Management System (DBMS) is software that allows users to create, manage, and manipulate databases. It provides an interface for users to interact with the database, perform operations like data entry, retrieval, modification, and deletion, and ensures data integrity and security. DBMS facilitates efficient storage and retrieval of data and enables multiple users to access and share data simultaneously.

Types of relationships in a database:

a) One-to-One (1:1) Relationship: In this type of relationship, each record in one table is associated with exactly one record in another table, and vice versa. For example, in a database for employee information, each employee may have one corresponding record in the salary table.

b) One-to-Many (1:N) Relationship: In a one-to-many relationship, a record in one table is associated with multiple records in another table, but each record in the second table is associated with only one record in the first table. For instance, in a database for a bookstore, one author can have multiple books, but each book is written by only one author.

c) Many-to-Many (N:M) Relationship: Many-to-many relationships involve multiple records in both tables. A record in one table can be associated with multiple records in the other table, and vice versa. To implement this relationship, a junction table is used. For example, in a database for students and courses, one student can enroll in multiple courses, and each course can have multiple students.

d) Self-Referencing Relationship: In a self-referencing relationship, records in a single table are related to other records within the same table. This type of relationship is commonly used to represent hierarchical or hierarchical data structures. For instance, in an organizational database, each employee may have a manager who is also an employee.


Formatting and validating field data are two different processes performed on data within a database:

- Formatting: Formatting involves modifying the appearance or representation of data without altering its underlying value. It ensures consistency and enhances the readability and usability of data. For example, formatting can be applied to dates to display them in a specific format (e.g., DD-MM-YYYY or MM/DD/YYYY), or to numeric values to add decimal places or currency symbols.

- Validating: Validating field data involves checking the correctness and accuracy of the data entered into a field based on predefined rules or criteria. It ensures that the data meets specific requirements and constraints. For example, validating a field for a phone number may involve checking if it contains the correct number of digits and follows a specific format (e.g., ###-###-####).

The formatting process focuses on the visual representation of data, while the validation process ensures data integrity and adherence to predefined rules.

7. Describe CMS with its common features. Write short notes on CSS and RSS.                                                                                                                      5+5

CMS stands for Content Management System. It is a software application that enables users to create, manage, and publish digital content on the web without requiring extensive technical knowledge. Some common features of CMS include:

a) Content Creation and Editing: CMS allows users to create and edit content using a user-friendly interface. It provides tools for formatting text, adding media (images, videos), and managing content hierarchy.

b) Content Organization and Management: CMS provides features for organizing and categorizing content, making it easy to search, retrieve, and update. It often includes a hierarchical structure, tags, and metadata for efficient content management.

c) User Management: CMS offers user management capabilities, allowing administrators to define user roles and permissions. It ensures that only authorized users can create, edit, or publish content.

d) Versioning and Revision Control: CMS tracks and stores multiple versions of content, enabling users to roll back to previous versions if needed. This feature ensures content integrity and facilitates collaboration among multiple users.

e) Publishing and Presentation: CMS provides tools for publishing content to the web. It allows users to define templates, themes, and layouts to control the appearance and presentation of the content.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a style sheet language used to describe the look and formatting of a document written in HTML or XML. It separates the content of a webpage from its presentation, enabling web designers to control the visual aspects such as fonts, colors, layout, and animations. CSS allows for consistent styling across multiple web pages and simplifies the process of making design changes to a website.

RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a format used for distributing and gathering web content in a standardized manner. It allows users to subscribe to content feeds from websites, blogs, or news sources and receive updates automatically. RSS feeds provide summaries or full content of articles, enabling users to stay updated with their favorite websites without visiting each site individually. RSS readers or aggregators can be used to collect and display RSS feeds from various sources in one place.


8. Define Hub, Switch and Router and also differentiate among them. Explain IPv4 addressing with its classes in brief.                                                          3+3+4

Hub, Switch, and Router are networking devices used to connect devices within a network, but they operate at different layers of the network and have different functionalities.

- Hub: A hub is a basic networking device that operates at the physical layer (Layer 1) of the network. It has multiple ports and serves as a central connection point for network devices. When a packet is received on one port, it is broadcasted to all other ports, regardless of the destination device. Hubs are often used in small networks and do not provide any intelligence for packet forwarding or network management.


- Switch: A switch is an advanced networking device that operates at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the network. It also has multiple ports but uses MAC addresses to forward packets only to the intended destination device. Switches improve network performance by creating dedicated communication channels between devices, reducing network congestion. They can learn and remember MAC addresses to build a table for efficient packet forwarding.

- Router: A router is a networking device that operates at the network layer (Layer 3) of the network. It connects multiple networks together and forwards packets between them based on IP addresses. Routers use routing tables to determine the best path for packet delivery. They provide network segmentation, enable communication between different IP subnets, and support advanced features like network address translation (NAT) and firewall capabilities.

IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol and the most widely used protocol for communicating over the Internet. It uses a 32-bit  space, divided into classes, to identify devices connected to a network.

IPv4 addresses are classified into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E.

- Class A: Class A addresses have the first octet reserved for network identification and can support a large number of hosts. The range of Class A addresses is from to

- Class B: Class B addresses have the first two octets reserved for network identification. They can support a moderate number of hosts compared to Class A. The range of Class B addresses is from to

- Class C: Class C addresses have the first three octets reserved for network identification and can support a smaller number of hosts compared to Class A and B. The range of Class C addresses is from to

- Class D: Class D addresses are reserved for multicast addresses and are not used for identifying individual devices. The range of Class D addresses is from to

- Class E: Class E addresses are reserved for future use and  are not currently assigned to any specific purpose. The range of Class E addresses is from to

Each class of IPv4 addresses has a different capacity for hosts and networks, allowing for efficient allocation and management of IP addresses within a network.

9. What is cyber security threat? Explain any four security threats.                  2+8

A cybersecurity threat refers to any potential danger or risk that can compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of computer systems, networks, or data. These threats can come from various sources, including malicious individuals, organizations, or automated malware. Here are four common types of security threats:

a) Malware: Malware is malicious software designed to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems. It includes viruses, worms, Trojans, ransomware, and spyware. Malware can be spread through email attachments, infected websites, or removable storage devices.

b) Phishing: Phishing is a type of cyber attack where attackers attempt to deceive individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords, or credit card details. Phishing attacks often involve fraudulent emails or websites that mimic legitimate organizations to trick users into disclosing their confidential information.

c) Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks: DoS attacks aim to make a computer system, network, or website unavailable to its intended users by overwhelming it with excessive traffic or requests. This results in a loss of service or a significant slowdown. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks involve multiple compromised devices, often forming a botnet, to launch the attack.

d) Data Breaches: A data breach occurs when unauthorized individuals gain access to sensitive or confidential data. This can happen through various means, such as exploiting vulnerabilities in a system, stealing login credentials, or physical theft of storage devices. Data breaches can lead to the exposure of personal information, financial loss, or reputational damage.

These are just a few examples of cyber security threats, and the threat landscape is continually evolving as attackers develop new techniques. Implementing robust security measures, such as firewalls, encryption, strong authentication, and regular software updates, is essential to mitigate these threats and protect computer systems and data.


10. विद्युतीय कारोबार ऐन२०६३ ले व्यवस्था गरेअनुसार नियन्त्रकको कामकर्तव्य र अधिकार उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।                                                                                    10

नियन्त्रकको काम, कर्तव्य तथा अधिकार: ऐनको दफा १४ मा उल्लेख भएका काम, कर्तव्य र अधिकारको अतिरिक्त नियन्त्रकको अन्य काम, कर्तव्य र अधिकार देहाय बमोजिम हुनेछ:

(क) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायले गरेका कामको अनुगमन गर्ने,गराउने,

(ख) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायले इजाजतपत्रमा उल्लेख भए बमोजिम काम गरे नगरेको सम्बन्धमा आवश्यक सुपरीवेक्षण गरी नगरेको भए सोबमोजिम गर्न लगाउने,

(ग) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायले प्रदान गर्ने सेवाको गुणस्तरको मापदण्ड निर्धारण गर्ने,

(घ) प्रमाणीकरण गर्ने निकायलाई इजाजतपत्र जारी गर्दा तोक्नु पर्ने शर्त निर्धारण गर्ने,

(ङ) आवश्यकता अनुसार परीक्षकको नियुक्ति गर्ने,

(च) परीक्षकले गर्ने काम कारबाहीको अनुगमन गर्ने,

(छ) नेपाल सरकारले समय समयमा तोकिदिएका काम गर्ने,

(ज) ऐन वा यस नियमावलीको उद्देश्य कार्यान्वयन गर्न आवश्यक पर्ने अन्य काम गर्ने ।

- The End -

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