Class Ten English

1  Current Affairs and Issues


How Driverless Cars will Change our World


By Jenny Cusack 30th November, 2021


It's a late night in the Metro area of Phoenix, Arizona. Under the artificial glare of street lamps, a car can be seen slowly approaching. Active sensors on the vehicle radiate a low hum. A green and blue 'W' glows from the windscreen, giving off just enough light to see inside - to a completely empty driver seat.


The wheel navigates the curb, parking as an arrival notification pings on the phone of the person waiting for it. When they open the door to climb inside, a voice greets them over the vehicle's sound system. "Good evening, this car is all yours - with no one upfront," it says.


This is a Waymo One robotaxi, hailed just 10 minutes ago using an app. The open use of this service to the public, slowly expanding across the US, is one of the many developments signaling that driverless technology is truly becoming a part of our lives.


The promise of driverless technology has long been enticing. It has the potential to transform our experience of commuting and long journeys, take people out of high-risk working environments and streamline our industries. It's key to helping us build the cities of the future, where our reliance and relationship with cars are redefined - lowering carbon emissions and paving the way for more sustainable ways of living. And it could make our travel safer. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.3 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. "We want safer roads and fewer fatalities. Automation ultimately could provide that," says Camilla Fowler, head of automated transport for the UK's Transport Research Laboratory (TRL).


But in order for driverless technology to become mainstream, much still needs to change. "Driverless vehicles should be a very calm and serene way of getting from A to B. But not every human driver around it will be behaving in that way." says David Hynd, chief scientist for safety and investigations at TRL.


"It's got to be able to cope with human drivers speeding, for instance, or breaking the rules of the road. "And that's not the only challenge. There's regulation, rethinking the Highway Code, public perception, improving the infrastructure of our streets, towns, cities, and the big question of ultimate liability for road accidents. "The whole insurance industry is looking into how they're going to deal with that change from a person being responsible and in charge to the vehicle doing that," says Richard Jinks, vice president of commercial at Oxfordshire-based driverless vehicle software company Oxbotica, which has been testing its technology in cars and delivery vehicles at several locations across the UK and Europe.


The ultimate vision experts are working towards is of completely driverless vehicles, both within industry, wider transport networks. and personal-use cars, that can be deployed and used anywhere and everywhere around the world.


But with all these hurdles in place, what exactly does the next 10 years have in store for autonomous vehicles?



Self-driving vehicles are steadily becoming a reality despite the many hurdles still to be overcome - and they could change our world in some unexpected ways.


Two years from now


The biggest hurdle for those in the driverless technology industry

is how to get the cars to operate safely and effectively in complex

and unpredictable human environments. Cracking this part of the

puzzle will be the major focus of the next two years.


At the Mcity Test Facility at the University of Michigan, experts are addressing this. The world's first purpose-built testing ground for autonomous vehicles, it is a mini-town of sorts, made up of 16 acres of road and traffic infrastructure. It includes traffic signals and signs, underpasses, building facades, tree cover.

home and garage exterior for testing delivery and ride-hailing, and different terrains such as road, pedestrian walkways, railway tracks, and road-markings which the vehicles must navigate. It is here that experts test scenarios that even the most experienced of drivers may be pressed to handle, from children playing in the street to two cars trying to merge on a junction at the same time.

                                                                                                                        (Source: BBCFuture)

A. The following words have two different meanings. Match each word with the meaning used in the context of the text above.

a. glare                         i. an angry or fierce stare

                                    ii. an intense blinding light


b. curb                         i. a stone edging to a pavement or raised path

                                    ii. Something that checks or restrains


c. hail                           i. to call to somebody in order to attract their attention

                                    ii. to describe somebody/something as being very good or special


d. commute                 i. to replace a punishment with a less severe one

                                    ii. to travel regularly between work place and home


e. serene                      i. calm and peaceful

                                    ii. an expanse of clear sky or calm sea


f. liability                     i. a person or thing that causes you a lot of problems

                                    ii. the state of being legally responsible for something


g. deploy                     i. to move soldiers or weapons into a position for an action

                                    ii. to use something effectively


h. autonomous             i. a vehicle that has the technology to drive itself

                                    ii. able to do things and make decisions without help from anyone else


i. perception                i. a belief or an image about how you see or understand something

                                    ii. the ability to understand the true nature of something.

B. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences below.

a. One of the features of automated cars is that

i. they wait for the passengers.

ii. they approach slowly.

iii. They have their own voice to welcome people into them.


b. Driverless technology is being widely used particularly in ......

i. the USA

ii. the UK

iii. the UAE


c. The positive impact of such technology on the environment is..........

i. it prevents road accidents.

ii. it paves the way to sustainable life.

iii. it reduces carbon production.


d. One of the problems with driverless technology is that...........

i. it cannot deal with traffic system.

ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.

iii. it cannot cope with other cars.


e. One of the biggest challenges of the automated cars is

i. its safety from the human environment

ii. human safety from it

iii. its durability in the human environment


f. The automated technology developed so far is........

i. completely trustworthy

ii. partly trustworthy

iii. not trustworthy


C. Answer the following questions.

a. Mention any three features of the driverless car.

= Three features of driverless cars mentioned in the text are:

i) Waymo One robotaxi:

It is a driverless taxi service that can be hailed using an app. The car operates without a human driver and picks up passengers to transport them to their destinations.


ii) Active sensors:

The driverless car is equipped with active sensors that emit signals to detect and navigate the surroundings. These sensors help the car perceive the environment and make decisions accordingly.


iii) Voice-based interaction:

The driverless car has a sound system through which it communicates with passengers. It can greet passengers and provide information or instructions regarding the ride.


b. Describe the benefits of driverless technology.

= The benefits of driverless technology mentioned in the text are:

i) Transforming commuting and long journeys:

Driverless technology has the potential to revolutionize the way people travel, making commuting and long journeys more convenient and comfortable.


ii) Improved safety:

Automation in vehicles could potentially reduce the number of road accidents and fatalities, making roads safer for everyone.


iii) Streamlining industries:

Driverless technology can optimize industries such as transportation, logistics, and delivery by increasing efficiency and reducing costs.


iv) Reducing carbon emissions:

With the adoption of driverless vehicles, there is a possibility of lowering carbon emissions and promoting more sustainable ways of living.


v) Building cities of the future:

Driverless technology plays a crucial role in redefining our relationship with cars and designing cities that are more efficient, interconnected, and environmentally friendly.


c. What, according to Camilla Fowler, is the special advantage of automated vehicles?

= According to Camilla Fowler, the special advantage of automated vehicles is their potential to provide safer roads and reduce fatalities. The World Health Organization estimates that over 1.3 million people die each year due to road traffic crashes. With automation, there is a possibility of minimizing human error, which is a significant contributing factor to accidents, and ultimately creating safer roads.


d. What are the problems with driverless vehicles in David Hynd's views?

= In David Hynd's views, the problems with driverless vehicles are related to their ability to cope with unpredictable human drivers. While driverless vehicles are designed to operate in a calm and serene manner, they need to navigate around human drivers who may not follow traffic rules, speed, or engage in other unsafe behaviors. Ensuring that driverless vehicles can handle such scenarios and interact effectively with human drivers is a challenge.

e. What are scientists doing to make driverless technology safer?

= Scientists are working on making driverless technology safer by:

i) Testing and simulation:

They create dedicated testing facilities, like the Mcity Test Facility mentioned in the text, where driverless vehicles can be tested in complex and realistic environments. This helps in identifying and addressing challenges before deploying the technology on public roads.


ii) Scenario-based training:

Researchers and engineers develop algorithms and machine learning models that allow driverless vehicles to handle various scenarios, including unpredictable human behavior. These models are trained using vast amounts of data to improve the decision-making capabilities of the vehicles.


iii) Sensor and technology advancements:

Scientists continuously work on improving sensors, such as lidar, radar, and cameras that enable driverless vehicles to perceive their surroundings accurately. Advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms also contribute to enhancing the safety and efficiency of driverless technology.


f. Do you think driverless technology is safer than human- controlled driving? Why?

= The question of whether driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving is subjective and complex. While driverless technology has the potential to minimize human errors and improve road safety, there are still challenges to overcome, as mentioned in the text. Driverless vehicles need to navigate around human drivers who may not always follow traffic rules, which can introduce unpredictable elements. Additionally, the technology itself is not entirely infallible, and there have been instances of accidents involving driverless vehicles. Overall, achieving a high level of safety with driverless technology requires addressing technological, regulatory, and societal factors, and continuous advancements in the field



A. Match the following statements with the correct reported speech and notice how the statements are changed.

a. Khushi said, "I go to school every day by bus."

Answer: Khushi said that she went to school every day by bus.


b. Karma said to me, "I am sorry for coming late."

Answer: Karma apologized for coming late.


c. Susan says, "I will leave for Bhanu next week."

Answer: Susan says that she will leave for Bhanu the following week.


d. Tshering said, "I will surely meet you this Saturday."

Answer: Tshering promised me to meet that Saturday.


e. "The bus leaves at six," said the agent.

Answer: The agent informed us that the bus left at six.


f. "I have already finished my project work," said She.

Answer: She said that she had already finished her project work.


g. "I work from home these days," said Yanjal.

Answer: Yanjal said that he worked from home those days.


B. Complete the following sentences with the correct  reporting verbs.

advised            informed         admitted          agreed             warned                       

apologized       offered                        promised         thanked          


a. "I broke the mirror." He............... that he had broken the mirror.

= admitted

b. "I'd go and see a doctor if I were you," Pemba said to me. Pemba………. me to see a doctor.

= advised

c. "I will send you out if you make a noise again," said the librarian. The librarian ......... me not to make a noise again.

= warned

d. "I can come and help you plant rice," said Raman. Raman ...... to help me plant rice.

= offered

e. "The classes start from next week," said the assistant. The assistant ......... us that the classes start from the following week.

= informed

f. Sonam said to me, "Thank you so much for your help." Sonam........... me for my help.

= thanked

g. "OK. I will return your money by Saturday," said Prakriti. Prakriti.......... to return my money by Saturday.

= promised


h. "I will really work hard and score good grades," said Anupam. Anupam........ to work hard and get good grades.

= agreed

i. "I am sorry for coming late," said the speaker. The speaker………..for coming late.

= apologized


Open Letter to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres


His Excellency Antonio Guterres

United Nations Secretary General

United Nations Secretariat

42nd Street,

New York, NY 10017

7 August 2020


                        RE: Inclusion of children in the Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change

Your Excellency,


Congratulations on your recent announcement of seven young climate leaders- between the ages of 18 and 28 years old - to your Youth Advisory Group on climate change, who will advise you regularly on accelerating global action and the action to tackle the worsening climate crisis. We appreciate this important focus on bringing young leaders into decision-making and planning processes related to climate action. We also welcome the emphasis you place on receiving and giving frank and fearless advice, and the urgency of holding government and corporate leaders to account on climate action.

We are disappointed, however, that you have not expanded this list of young climate leaders to children in all their diversity. Millions of children took part in school strikes for climate action in 2019 and early 2020 and demonstrated their outrage and constructive solutions in equal measure. They have been agents of change in the climate debate using their channels of influence-schools, social media, and street protest- to catalyze global activism on the climate crisis. We have seen children from the global North to the global South engaging with political and corporate leaders- in their home countries and also within the international system-most recently at the UN Human Rights Council-claiming their right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment as critical foundation to realizing their wellbeing and rights.

It was, after all, a child, Greta Thunberg, who sparked this global movement through an inspiriting solo protest in 2018. By 2019. she was able to rightly assert: "We proved that it does not matter what you do and that no one is too small to make a difference." In 2020, children are saying the same thing. Like Fabrizio, a 16 year old boy from Peru, who told us on a recent child-led online conversation, "The Future of Children is at stake now, tomorrow will be too late." Children like Fabrizio are vocal in their anxiety that our dash to economic recovery will scupper climate change at net- zero commitments. They continue to pressure on us all for urgency, and to fight for a green recovery.

Once again, Secretary-General, we congratulate you on the establishment of the Youth Advisory Group on climate change. We ask, however, that it be inclusive of children and adolescents younger than 18; respecting their right to be heard and to contribute their expertise directly. We also ask that as preparations for COP26 advance, you call for the UK and Italy to give children a safe space to influence these upcoming preparatory events. We would of course be happy to support a process that facilitates meaningful engagement with children across the globe on both your Group and COP26.

If the last two years have taught us anything it is that children, armed with information and a sense of purpose, have a unique role to play by participating in decision-making processes and in combating crises with constructive solutions. Let us make sure that we learn and apply this lesson to the planning process related to climate action.


Sincerely Yours,

Save the Children

Child Rights Connect


A. Fill in the blanks with the correct words given below.

a. The corporate headquarters of the company is in Dubai.
b. According to Greta, the leaders are failing to tackle the key issues.
c. Some viruses catalyze the step in the production of other viruses.
d. His expertise in business helped him greatly to run the company.
e. Nepal government plans to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to net-zero.
f. He does not have good knowledge of business. So, he has put his investment at stake.
g. His controversial remarks caused public outrage.


B. Write whether the following sentences are 'True' or 'False'. Write 'Not Given' if the information is not found in the letter.

a. Save the Children congratulates Antonio Guterres on his recent appointment as the General Secretary of the UN.

= False

b. The Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change was announced on the request of the children between 18-21 years of age.

= True

c. The dissatisfaction is that the representation of children is not inclusive.

= True

d. Greta Thunberg protested for the right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment.

= True

e. The children demand their physical safety in the UK and Italy.

= Not given

f. The children think that they can participate in decision making to fight against the climate crisis.

= True


C. Answer the following questions.

a. Where is the office of the UN Secretary General?

=  The office of the UN Secretary General is in New York, NY.

b. What is the purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres?

= The purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres is to express disappointment over the exclusion of children in the Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change.

c. Why was the Youth Advisory Group announced?

= The Youth Advisory Group was announced to advise the Secretary-General on accelerating global action and tackling the climate crisis.

d. What roles have children played in the time of climate crisis?

= Children have played a role in the climate crisis by participating in school strikes, protests, and advocating for climate action.

e. Describe Greta Thuberg and Fabrizio's contributions.

= Greta Thunberg sparked the global movement, and Fabrizio, a 16-year-old boy from Peru, expressed the urgency of addressing climate change.


f. What is the final demand of the children?

= The final demand of the children is to be included and heard in decision-making processes and planning related to climate action.

Grammar II

A. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences:
a. Abhilasha said that she…...... the accident. (witnessed, has witnessed, was witnessed)

b. The teacher explained that…………..(the earth revolves round the sun, the earth revolved round the sun, revolve round the sun).

C. Smarika says that ………....(she could not stay there anymore, I can't stay here anymore, she can't stay here anymore).

d. Sachita says that ………...(she loves to listen to music, she loved to listen to music, I love to listen to music).

e. My brother reported that....... he had completed his homework, I have completed my homework, he has done his homework).

f. My father said that the sun very hot. ..................( is, are, was)

g. Jenifer said that she …….......(want, wants, wanted) to be a nurse.


a. Abhilasha said that she witnessed the accident.
b. The teacher explained that the earth revolves round the sun.
c. Smarika says that she can't stay here anymore.
d. Sachita says that she loves to listen to music.
e. My brother reported that he had completed his homework.
f. My father said that the sun is very hot.
g. Jennifer said that she wanted to be a nurse.

B. Rewrite the following sentences in indirect speech.

a. Raima said, "We had to cross the river and go ahead."

= Raima said that they had to cross the river and go ahead.

b. Smarika said, "I will meet you tomorrow, friends."

= Smarika said that she would meet her friends tomorrow.

c. "I can't come to school tomorrow," Chandani said.

= Chandani said that she couldn't come to school tomorrow.

d. Dorje said, "Sorry, I cannot lend you any money today."

= Dorje said that he couldn't lend any money today.

e. The teacher said. "Now, you can solve the remaining problems yourselves."

= The teacher said that we could solve the remaining problems ourselves.

f. The police said. "The incident probably took place yesterday."

= The police said that the incident had probably taken place yesterday.

g. I said to him, "I live in Changunarayan these days."

= I told him that I lived in Changunarayan these days.

h. They said to us, "We would like to join you too."

= They told us that they would like to join us too.

i. The Science teacher said, "The coal gives off thick smoke."

= The Science teacher said that coal gives off thick smoke.

j. Resham said, "I have never seen such a strange animal anywhere else."

= Resham said that she had never seen such a strange animal anywhere else.
k. "I love my children more than wealth," the father said.

= The father said that he loved his children more than wealth


2  Festivals and Celebrations


Battle of Oranges

All I can see is a flash of orange, then I am hit in the chest. It knocks my breath away. I slide backwards, fall bum-first in a pile of orange mush. What the heck! I touch my head: my red hat is still there.


During the carnival, official public notices are plastered on the walls around Ivrea, ordering people, especially tourists, to wear a red hat. Or else they can be considered a 'fair target for gentle and moderate orange-throwing'.


The red hat people are ordered to wear is not just any hat. The berretto frigio, a sock-shaped hat sold on every street corner, is the symbol of the carnival itself. It is a symbol of freedom; worn in Roman times by freed slaves. During the Middle Ages it was on the heads of peasants rioting against feudal lords.


Back on my feet, I make sure my hat is on, and visible. I want to get another look, but soon I am hit again on my forehead. My head jerks back, I wipe my face, oh my goodness, it's blood! I am going to need stitches, maybe it's a concussion!


Then I remember blood oranges.


Shivering from the quick succession of shock and relief, I retreat to the back of the square, away from any flying fruit. This is the first of three yearly battles; everybody is fresh and excited from a year-long wait. Nine teams of aranceri (orange-throwers) on foot, wearing uniforms, hurl oranges at their opponents on horse-drawn carriages, clad in Doctor Whoesque costumes with padded shoulders and leather-covered cylindrical helmets. An hour into the battle, the square is covered in a thick sludge, mixture of orange pulp and horse manure. It smells sharp, sweet-and-sour.


Aranceri on foot rush back and forth, to the sides of the square stacked with orange crates, filling their shoulder bags and baggy tops. As soon as a cart approaches, they charge, bombarding it with oranges.


Horses halt, for a few minutes; oranges explode, then the cart takes off again, the aranceri chase it for a while, hurling the last of their supplies. They wear no protection, and walk around with their hair caked in orange bits, juice running down their faces. Some have broken noses, some clutch a side of their face, arms or ribs. They hold their heads high, shouting their team's war cries.


"This is the moment we wait for all the year," says Silvia, holding an orange cut in half on her right eye. "I'll be happy to have a black eye tomorrow."


She sits with me, sipping a glass of mulled wine. "I think carnival is good for our psychological health. During these three days I can let it all out, all the frustrations I have built up during the year. Afterwards I feel refreshed. Of course, accidents happen" she adds, pushing the orange on her swollen eye, "but you should try, it's good for you".


I am curious to know what it feels, I admit. I keep thinking I am wearing a hat, and the public are not supposed to join in the battle. Even so, that doesn't seem to stop hat-wearers from throwing the occasional orange. To prevent further trouble, volunteers advise the public to stay behind protective nets.


"Forget the nets" says Massi, an arancere of the Morte team, with a gigantic skull on the back of his orange-stained uniform, "if you want to live the carnival, you have to be in the middle of the battle."


"Aren't you afraid of getting hurt?"


Massi laughs. "If you compare the risk to the rush you get, a black eye is a small price to pay."


He fills his top with oranges. A cart is approaching. "Come on, throw your red hat away and come with me".


I am tempted, but I decline.


                                                - Margherita


A. Match the words with their meaning.

a. mush                        i. to throw something violently in a particular direction

b. jerk                          ii. to hold something tightly

c. concussion               iii. a soft thick mass or mixture

d. hurl                          iv. to drink something, taking a very small amount each time

e. pulp                         v. to make something move with a sudden short sharp movement

f. clutch                       vi. a temporary loss of consciousness

g. sip                            vii. the soft part inside the fruits and vegetables


a. mush - iii. a soft thick mass or mixture

b. jerk - v. to make something move with a sudden short sharp movement

c. concussion - vi. a temporary loss of consciousness

d. hurl - i. to throw something violently in a particular direction

e. pulp - vii. the soft part inside the fruits and vegetables

f. clutch - ii. to hold something tightly

g. sip - iv. to drink something, taking a very small amount each time


B. Write 'True' for true statements and 'False' for false ones.

a. The tourists are informed to wear a red hat through public notices.           True

b. Aranceri seems dressed in Doctor Whoesque costumes.                            True

c. When a cart approaches, aranceri run away from the square.                     False

d. The narrator feels bored during the festival period.                                   False

e. The volunteers encourage the visitors to join the battle.                             True

f. The narrator accepts Massi's offer.                                                              False


C. Answer the following questions.

a. What does the red hat symbolize?

= The red hat symbolizes freedom and is a symbol of the carnival itself.


b. How does the narrator feel when she wipes her face?

= The narrator feels shocked when she wipes her face.


c. What does the square look like after an hour- battle of the oranges?

= After an hour of the battle of the oranges, the square is covered in a thick sludge, a mixture of orange pulp and horse manure.


d. How do aranceri members chase the cart?

= Aranceri members chase the cart by running after it and hurling the last of their supplies.


e. Does Silvia enjoy this carnival? Why?

= Yes, Silvia enjoys the carnival because it allows her to release frustrations and feel refreshed afterward.


f. Why does Massi say, "Forget the nets"?

= Massi says, "Forget the nets" because he believes that to truly experience the carnival, one must be in the middle of the battle.



Grammar I

A. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. The beginning of each sentence is given.


a. "Are you working tonight?"

Agaman asked Timothy if he was working that night.


b. "Is this the road to the station?"

A stranger wanted to know from me if that was the road to the station.


c. "Did you do your homework?"

My friend inquired her if she had done her homework.


d. "Have you been to Paris?"

The tourist was asked if he had been to Paris.


e. "How long have you been working in this company?"

Usha inquired of Anju how long she had been working in that company.


f. "What flavour ice cream did you have at the party?"

My mother asked me what flavor ice cream I had at the party.


g. "Have you studied reported speech before?"

The teacher wanted to know if they had studied reported speech before.


h. "Where will you stay tonight?"

I asked him where he would stay that night.


i. "How many players were shown yellow card by the referee?"

Sumangal asked his friend how many players were shown yellow cards by the referee.


j. "What magic did the medicine have on the patient?"

Sarita wanted to know from Sommaya what magic the medicine had on the patient.

B. Change the following remarks into reported speech.

a. Kritika asked me, "Why did you go out last night?"

= Kritika asked me why I had gone out last night.


b. "Who was that beautiful woman, Usha?" said Sunita.

= Sunita said that she asked Usha who that beautiful woman was.


c. "How is your mother?" said Gaurab to Yang Dolma.

= Gaurab said to Yang Dolma how her mother was.


d. My friend wanted to know, "What are you going to do at the weekend?"

= My friend wanted to know what I was going to do at the weekend.


e. "Where will you live after graduation?" said my teacher.

= My teacher asked where I would live after graduation.


f. Anusha said to Melisha, "What were you doing when I saw you?"

= Anusha said to Melisha what she had been doing when she saw her.


g. I said to the pilgrim, "How was the journey?"

= I said to the pilgrim how the journey had been.


h. "How often do you go to cinema?" said Krishna.

= Krishna asked how often I went to the cinema.


i. "Do you live in Patan?" said the Principal.

= The Principal asked if I lived in Patan.


j. Niraj said to Luniva, "Did Phadindra arrive on time?"

= Niraj asked Luniva if Phadindra had arrived on time


Thanks giving around the World

Festivals are not just the means of entertainment or rejoice. They also reflect our heritage, culture and traditions. Thanksgiving is celebrated around the world to extend thanks for the harvest, enjoying bountiful food, and spending time with family and friends. Even though Thanksgiving seems to be uniquely American, the tradition is followed in different countries in various forms.


Thanksgiving, USA

Celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November, Thanksgiving in the USA is a national holiday that commemorates the feast the Pilgrims held after the first harvest in 1621. The first celebration was attended by 90 Native Americans and 53 pilgrims. Thanksgiving has been celebrated intermittently ever since.


Thanksgiving dinner with family plays a central role in the celebrations, with Americans eating more food on Thanksgiving Day than any other day of the year, including Christmas. Roast turkey is essential - approximately 45 million of them are consumed every year as well as mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes, sweet corn and assorted fall vegetables, all food that is native to the Americans.


Parades are a big part of the celebrations too. They range from small town affairs featuring the local marching band to Macy's Thanksgiving parade through the streets of New York. Billed as the world's largest parade, it features parade floats and huge balloons, usually based on cartoon characters, current Broadway shows and other topical themes.


Chuseok, South Korea

Chuseok, also called Hangnail, is a Korean festive holiday celebrated on the 15th day of August, according to the lunar calendar. The festival is celebrated to commemorate the fall harvest and to honour one's ancestors. Similar to Thanksgiving Day in the USA, the Harvest Moon Festival, as it is also known, is one of the most popular holidays in Korea. Traditionally, Koreans return to their ancestral hometowns to celebrate with their families.


The festival day begins with a ceremony in which food and wine are offered to ancestors. This is followed by a meal that typically consists of fish and newly harvested vegetables and grains. The food most associated with the holiday is songpyon, a crescent-shaped rice cake that is cooked on a bed of pine needles. Later in the day, celebrants visit the graves of relatives, where more ceremonies are performed. Chuseok is also marked by gift giving and athletic events, including tug-of- war competitions, archery contests, and sirrum, Korean wrestling matches. Other activities include dancing and music playing. On this day, many Koreans wear hanbok, the traditional clothing.


Dia de Acao de Gracas, Brazil

In Brazil, Thanksgiving is a relatively new festival - but it's celebrated with great gusto. It is said that when the former Brazilian President, Gaspar Dutra visited the USA, he was fascinated with the holiday and established the festival in his home country in 1949.


Dia de Acao de Gracas begins with the mass to offer thanks for an abundant harvest - then there is a vibrant carnival and revellers head to the beach, Peru. Roasted turkey is still the centrepiece of the Brazilian Thanksgiving feast, but there are a few exotic twists. Cranberries do not grow in Brazil, so a sauce made of Jaboticaba, known as the 'Brazilian grape', is whipped up to spread on the bird.


Thanksgiving, Liberia

Liberian Thanksgiving is a vibrant and spicy affair. Founded in the 19th century by liberated American slaves, the festival gives thanks for freedom. Liberians celebrate the good things in life, while also marking their troubled past.


After a church service, families gather for a spread of roasted chicken, traditional green bean casserole and mashed cassava - all liberally doused with spices, of course. The Thanksgiving feast is topped off with an evening of dancing, singing and celebration.


Crop Over, Barbados

The celebration of Crop Over is Barbados's biggest party. The festival spreads over a length of 12 weeks, from May until August, when it culminates in the massive finale: the Grand Kadooment.


Originally a celebration of the sugar cane harvest, Crop Over has been celebrated since the 1780s when Barbados was the world's largest produce of the sweet-stuff. Carnivals pervade the lengthy celebrations, and calypso bands and dancers compete in ever grander and more flamboyant displays.


Homowo, Ghana

The Homowo festival, meaning to jeer or hoot at hunger in Ghana historically celebrates the ending of a long famine suffered by the Ghanaians. What could be better to celebrate the end of shortage than a feast? Palm nut soup with fish is served alongside traditional Kpokoi, a kind of grits made from unleavened corn dough and palm oil.


Starting in May with the sowing of millet, the festival takes place through August and September after a ban on drumming and singing that is meant to encourage proper care of the crops. The festival culminates in a night of singing and dancing and frantic beating of drums in loud defiance of hunger and famine.


Mehregan, Iran

A festival that dates back at least to the 4th century BC, Mehregan in Iran is held on the 196th day of the Iranian year. The festival celebrates a successful harvest and the goddess Mehr.


The celebration calls for new clothes, community blessings and a feast on a table decorated with marjoram. The spread includes sherbert drinks and lavish dinners; in some villages, a sheep is sacrificed and slow- roasted throughout the day.


Revellers rub kohl around their eyes as a good omen, and throw handfuls of marjoram, lotus and sugar plum seeds over each other.


A. The meanings of some of the words from the text are given below. Find the words and write against the correct meanings.

a. in a way occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady………

= Intermittently

b. to remind people of an important event or person from the past………..

= Commemorate

c. in a way that shows the usual qualities or features of a particular type of person or thing.........

= Typically

d. a curved shape that is wide in the middle and pointed at each end…………

= Crescent-shaped

e. full of life and energy………….

= Vibrant

f. a person who is having fun in a noisy way, usually with a group of other people………

= Revellers

g. from or in another country; seeming exciting and unusual………

= Exotic

h. to spread through and be easy to notice…………

= Pervade

i. brightly coloured and likely to attract attention...........

= Flamboyant

j. done quickly and with a lot of activity, but not very well organized………….

= Frantic


B. The following events represent different activities observed during Thanksgiving around the world. Study them carefully and write the names of countries where they are celebrated.

a. Families gather for a feast in the evening accompanied by dancing and singing.

= Liberia

b. People wear new clothes and get community blessings.

= Iran

c. Palm nut soup, fish and traditional Kpokoi are served.

= Ghana

d. People return to their hometowns to celebrate the festival.

= South Korea

e. Celebrants go to the beach in a noisy way.

= Brazil

f. Parades are taken out in the streets.


g. Food and wine are offered to the forefathers.

= South Korea


C. Answer the following questions.

a. What is the main feature of American Thanksgiving?

- Thanksgiving dinner with family.


b. What do parades include in Thanksgiving in America?

- Parade includes floats and huge balloons based on various themes.


c. When and why is Chuseok celebrated in Korea?

- Chuseok is celebrated on the 15th day of August (according to the lunar calendar) to commemorate the fall harvest and honor one's ancestors.


d. How did Thanksgiving begin in Brazil?

- It began when the former Brazilian President, Gaspar Dutra, visited the USA and was inspired by the holiday. He established Thanksgiving in Brazil in 1949.


e. Who started Thanksgiving in Liberia?

- Thanksgiving in Liberia was started by liberated American slaves in the 19th century.


f. Why was it started? What is Thanksgiving celebrated in Barbados for?

- Thanksgiving in Barbados, known as Crop Over, was originally a celebration of the sugar cane harvest when Barbados was the world's largest producer of sugar.


g. What is Homowo marked in Ghana?

- Homowo in Ghana marks the celebration of the end of a long famine and is a feast to jeer at hunger.


Grammar II

A. Rewrite the following sentences choosing the correct alternative from brackets.

a. Sujita asked her mother.......(when her father would come home, when will her father come home, when might her father come home).

b. She replied that she had never had caviar when I said to her, " ....caviar?" (Have you ever had, Will you have, Would you have)

c. The salesperson said to him, "What...........for you?" (I can do, can I do, I could do)

d. The tourist inquired from Banepa. (whether I belonged, whether I would belong, whether I am belonging)

e. The little girl asked us what come back. (were we supposed, we were supposed, we had been supposed)

f. The head teacher asked her ........ the exam form the week before. (whether she had filled out, whether she fills out, whether had she filled out)

g. Renuka asked me.........her. (if I have called, if I had called, if had I called)


a. Sujita asked her mother when her father would come home.

b. She replied that she had never had caviar when I said to her, "Have you ever had caviar?"

c. The salesperson said to him, "What can I do for you?"

d. The tourist inquired from me whether I belonged to Banepa.

e. The little girl asked us what time we were supposed to come back.

f. The head teacher asked her whether she had filled out the exam form the week before.

g. Renuka asked me if I had called her.


B. Nihar Chaudhary interviewed her Social Studies teacher last week. Here is the report prepared by her after the interview. Read it carefully and list out direct questions asked by Nihar.

Today, I got an opportunity to interview Mr. Sudeep Prasad Joshi, our Social Studies teacher about a Newari tradition known as Thi. Here is a brief report of the information imparted to me.


Mr. Joshi stated that Ihi is a Newari ceremony in which pre- adolescent girls are married to the Suvarna Kumar, a symbol of god Vishnu. I asked him why it was done. He said that it is done to ensure that the girl becomes and remains fertile. It was started to escape the Sati tradition. According to the tradition,when a girl was married to Vishnu, she would not be a widow even after the death of her mortal husband. He added that it is performed to the girls between the ages five to nine. It is known as Bel Bibaha (Ihi)because when a girl was married to Lord Vishnu, bel (wood apple) fruit was given as a witness. Mr. Joshi explained why this particular fruit chosen was because of its peculiar quality of not getting rotten. Because of this property. bel is considered as Divya Purusha or incarnation of the god. He said that the ritual goes on for two consecutive days, which is tiring for the girl and her parents. During the ceremony, those participating could not eat certain foods or drinks, especially those with salt.



Direct questions asked by Nihar during the interview:

1. Why is the Ihi ceremony performed?

2. What is the age range for girls to participate in the ceremony?

3. Why is it known as Bel Bibaha (Ihi)?

4. Why was the wood apple fruit chosen as a witness?

5. How long does the ritual last?

6. What are the restrictions on food and drinks during the ceremony?





3. Health and Wellness


A Letter from a Patient

Dear health care worker,

I recently experienced a parent's worst nightmare दु:स्वप्न. One evening my nine-week old baby developed an extremely अत्यन्तै high fever. We rushed to our local community hospital and were admitted through the emergency department आपतकालिन विभाग to the pediatric बाल चिकित्सा unit. We were discharged three days later. Thanks to the skilled doctors and nurses who cared for our precious बहुमुल्य little one. While our infant's care and health outcomes were fantastic, our experience was less than satisfactory.

During my hospital stay, many staff took the opportunity अवसर to bad-mouth their colleagues सहकर्मीहरु to me when we were alone. I am not sure if this occurred because I looked rather trust-worthy or they wanted to let me know they were more competent सक्षम than their colleagues. The emergency nurses complained about the doctors' orders and the delay in response of the pediatric nurses. The pediatric nurses complained about the emergency room nurses' inability to get an intravenous line. The pediatrician complained about orders made by the emergency doctor. Once admitted, our pediatric nurse complained about the pediatricians' approach to the care of my baby. Then the pediatrician बालरोग विशेषज्ञ complained about the pediatric nurse's lack of ability to obtain a urine sample नमुना


At every opportunity the parent in me wanted to scream at the top of my lungs "Can stop complaining about each other and look after my sick baby?" From my vantage point सुविधाजनक बिन्दु, it seemed that everyone was so focused on their own needs and skills that they appeared completely insensible that there was a sick baby that needed their help. In fact, it was downright disappointing एकदम निराशाजनक. This did nothing other than state to me that egos अंहकार were taking priority प्राथमिकता over my daughter's care. I cannot tell you how many times nurses told me, "I am so busy today." I am not sure if they were telling me to excuse the fact that my daughter's medications औषधीहरु were not on time or maybe they were simply looking for support. Every time I heard this statement my head played my own version that sounded more like "your daughter is not a priority."


Do not use patients or their families as your personal confidante विश्वासपात्र. I was in that hospital room to care for my infant and see her condition improve, not to hear that staff were not equipped to see this goal through. Patients and their families need to know they are your priority and your job is to care for them in an effort to restore health. Please take time to tell them this, share positive news with them as if you are happy too, because I know you are.


Use the chart, read it, write on it and refer to it. After all, this is where everything that happens should be documented. At every interaction with a physician and their students I was asked the same questions "Was she premature?" and "Was your delivery normal?" I answered these questions the same each time, surely someone wrote this down in our chart.


The majority of health care workers that approached my daughter referred to her as male. I would politely correct them with her or she. My daughter spent her time in hospital wearing only a diaper. Despite no obvious gender indicator, surely somewhere in my paperwork it indicated that she was female. As sleep deprivation अभाव and stress took their toll I wondered what other mistakes may exist on my baby's paperwork. Please be careful of what you say to patients and how you say it. When you are caught on such a slip up, be genuine in your apology and make a sincere effort to refrain from repeating the same mistake next time. Patients and their families need to know that you are listening and that you care about what it is they are saying. The gender error is one that left me with a sense of sloppiness and lack of focus on behalf of all who made this innocent mistake.


I am a health care worker just like you. People trust us to take care of their most precious loved ones in their most vulnerable states. This is our job and we do it with pride, but how we treat each other is dreadful डरलाग्दो Patients know that healthcare is not a glamorous career choice. They know that most of us do it because we want to help sick people get well. Do your best to confirm this belief when people are in your care. I am not innocent of uttering some of these statements above. However, I can assure you that I will be more conscious of what I say to patients and their families after my daughter's hospital stay.


Fellow health care workers, choose to interact with your patients in a way that instills confidence in yourself and your fellow team members. You alone have the power to positively shape the patient's experience.


Yours truly,


An appreciative mother


(Adapted from


एक बिरामीको पत्र

प्रिय स्वास्थ्यकर्मी,

मैले भर्खरै आमाबाबुको सबैभन्दा खराब सपना अनुभव गरें। एक साँझ मेरो नौ हप्ताको बच्चालाई असाध्यै उच्च ज्वरो आयो। हामी हतारमा हाम्रो स्थानीय सामुदायिक अस्पतालमा गयौं र आपातकालीन विभाग मार्फत बाल चिकित्सा इकाईमा भर्ना गरियो। हामी तीन दिन पछि डिस्चार्ज भयौं। हाम्रो बहुमूल्य सानो बच्चाको हेरचाह गर्ने दक्ष डाक्टर र नर्सहरूलाई धन्यवाद। जबकि हाम्रो शिशुको हेरचाह र स्वास्थ्य परिणामहरू शानदार थिए, हाम्रो अनुभव सन्तोषजनक भन्दा कम थियो।


मेरो अस्पताल बसाइको समयमा, धेरै कर्मचारीहरूले हामी एक्लै हुँदा आफ्ना सहकर्मीहरूलाई गाली गर्ने मौका लिए। म पक्का छैन कि यो भयो किनकी म बरु भरोसेमंद देखिन्थ्यो वा तिनीहरूले मलाई थाहा दिन चाहन्थे कि तिनीहरू आफ्ना सहकर्मीहरू भन्दा बढी सक्षम थिए। आकस्मिक नर्सहरूले डाक्टरको आदेश र बाल नर्सहरूले जवाफ दिन ढिलाइ भएको गुनासो गरे। बालरोग नर्सहरूले आकस्मिक कक्षका नर्सहरूले इन्ट्राभेनस लाइन लिन नसक्ने गुनासो गरे। बाल रोग विशेषज्ञले आकस्मिक डाक्टरले गरेको आदेशको बारेमा गुनासो गरे। भर्ना भएपछि, हाम्रो बाल चिकित्सा नर्सले मेरो बच्चाको हेरचाह गर्न बाल रोग विशेषज्ञहरूको दृष्टिकोणको बारेमा गुनासो गरे। त्यसपछि बाल रोग विशेषज्ञले पिडियाट्रिक नर्सको पिसाबको नमूना लिन सक्ने क्षमता नभएको गुनासो गरे।


हरेक अवसरमा म भित्रका अभिभावक मेरो फोक्सोको शीर्षमा चिच्याउन चाहन्थे "के एक अर्काको बारेमा गुनासो गर्न रोक्न र मेरो बिरामी बच्चाको हेरचाह गर्न सक्नुहुन्छ?" मेरो सहूलियत बिन्दुबाट, यस्तो लाग्थ्यो कि सबैजना आफ्नै आवश्यकता र सीपहरूमा यति केन्द्रित थिए कि तिनीहरू पूर्णतया असंवेदनशील देखिन्थे कि त्यहाँ बिरामी बच्चा थियो जसलाई उनीहरूको मद्दत चाहिन्छ। वास्तवमा, यो एकदम निराशाजनक थियो। यसले मेरो छोरीको हेरचाहमा अहंकारले प्राथमिकता लिइरहेको थियो भन्ने कुरा मलाई राज्य बाहेक अरू केही गरेन। म तिमीलाई बताउन सक्दिन कि नर्सहरूले मलाई कति पटक भने, "म आज धेरै व्यस्त छु।" मेरो छोरीको औषधि समयमै नपाएको भन्दै उनीहरूले मलाई माफी दिन भन्दै थिए वा हुनसक्छ उनीहरूले सहयोग खोजिरहेका थिए भन्ने कुरामा म पक्का छैन। प्रत्येक चोटि मैले यो कथन सुनेपछि मेरो टाउकोले मेरो आफ्नै संस्करण बजाउँछ जुन "तपाईँकी छोरीलाई प्राथमिकता छैन" जस्तो लाग्थ्यो।


बिरामी वा तिनीहरूका परिवारलाई आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत विश्वासपात्रको रूपमा प्रयोग नगर्नुहोस्। म मेरो शिशुको हेरचाह गर्न र उनको अवस्था सुधारिएको हेर्नको लागि अस्पतालको कोठामा थिएँ, कर्मचारीहरू यो लक्ष्य पूरा गर्न सुसज्जित थिएनन् भन्ने सुन्न थिएन। बिरामीहरू र तिनीहरूका परिवारहरूलाई थाहा हुनुपर्छ कि तिनीहरू तपाईं हुन्

प्राथमिकता र तपाईंको काम स्वास्थ्य पुनर्स्थापना गर्ने प्रयासमा उनीहरूको हेरचाह गर्नु हो। कृपया तिनीहरूलाई यो बताउनको लागि समय लिनुहोस्, तिनीहरूसँग सकारात्मक समाचार साझा गर्नुहोस् मानौं तपाईं पनि खुसी हुनुहुन्छ, किनकि मलाई थाहा छ तपाईं हुनुहुन्छ।

बिरामी वा तिनीहरूका परिवारलाई आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत विश्वासपात्रको रूपमा प्रयोग नगर्नुहोस्। म मेरो शिशुको हेरचाह गर्न र उनको अवस्था सुधारिएको हेर्नको लागि अस्पतालको कोठामा थिएँ, कर्मचारीहरू यो लक्ष्य पूरा गर्न सुसज्जित थिएनन् भन्ने सुन्न थिएन। बिरामीहरू र तिनीहरूका परिवारहरूलाई थाहा हुनुपर्छ कि तिनीहरू तपाईं हुन्
प्राथमिकता र तपाईंको काम स्वास्थ्य पुनर्स्थापना गर्ने प्रयासमा उनीहरूको हेरचाह गर्नु हो। कृपया तिनीहरूलाई यो बताउनको लागि समय लिनुहोस्, तिनीहरूसँग सकारात्मक समाचार साझा गर्नुहोस् मानौं तपाईं पनि खुसी हुनुहुन्छ, किनकि मलाई थाहा छ तपाईं हुनुहुन्छ।
चार्ट प्रयोग गर्नुहोस्, यसलाई पढ्नुहोस्, यसमा लेख्नुहोस् र यसलाई सन्दर्भ गर्नुहोस्। आखिर, यो हो जहाँ सबै कुरा दस्तावेज हुनुपर्छ। एक चिकित्सक र उनीहरूका विद्यार्थीहरूसँगको प्रत्येक अन्तरक्रियामा मलाई एउटै प्रश्नहरू सोधियो "के उनी समयपूर्व थिइन्?" र "तपाईको डेलिभरी सामान्य थियो?" मैले यी प्रश्नहरूको जवाफ प्रत्येक पटक उस्तै दिएँ, पक्कै कसैले यो हाम्रो चार्टमा लेख्यो।
मेरी छोरीलाई सम्पर्क गर्ने अधिकांश स्वास्थ्यकर्मीहरूले उनलाई पुरुष भनेर उल्लेख गरे। म तिनीहरूलाई विनम्रतापूर्वक उहाँ वा उनीसँग सच्याउनेछु। मेरी छोरीले अस्पतालमा आफ्नो समय डायपर लगाएर बिताइन्। कुनै स्पष्ट लिंग सूचक नभए पनि, पक्कै पनि मेरो कागजी कार्यमा कतै यसले उनी महिला थिइन भनेर संकेत गर्यो। निद्राको अभाव र तनावले उनीहरूको टोल लिँदा मैले मेरो बच्चाको कागजी कार्यमा अन्य गल्तीहरू के हुन सक्छ भनेर सोचें। कृपया बिरामीहरूलाई के भन्नुहुन्छ र कसरी भन्नुहुन्छ भन्ने कुरामा ध्यान दिनुहोस्। जब तपाई यस्तो गल्तीमा समात्नु हुन्छ, तपाईको माफीमा साँचो हुनुहोस् र अर्को पटक उही गल्ती दोहोर्याउनबाट जोगिने इमान्दार प्रयास गर्नुहोस्। बिरामीहरू र तिनीहरूका परिवारहरूले तपाईंले सुनिरहनुभएको छ र तिनीहरूले के भनिरहेका छन् भनी तपाईंले ख्याल राख्नुहुन्छ भनेर जान्न आवश्यक छ। यो निर्दोष गल्ती गर्ने सबैको तर्फबाट मलाई अल्छीपन र फोकसको कमीको भावनाको साथ लैङ्गिक त्रुटि हो।
म पनि तपाई जस्तै स्वास्थ्यकर्मी हुँ। मानिसहरूले हामीलाई उनीहरूको सबैभन्दा कमजोर अवस्थाहरूमा सबैभन्दा बहुमूल्य प्रियजनहरूको हेरचाह गर्न विश्वास गर्छन्। यो हाम्रो काम हो र हामी गर्वका साथ गर्छौं, तर हामी एकअर्कालाई कस्तो व्यवहार गर्छौं त्यो डरलाग्दो छ। बिरामीहरूलाई थाहा छ कि स्वास्थ्य सेवा ग्लैमरस क्यारियर छनौट होइन। उनीहरूलाई थाहा छ कि हामी मध्ये धेरैले यो गर्छौं किनभने हामी बिरामीहरूलाई निको हुन मद्दत गर्न चाहन्छौं। मानिसहरू तपाईंको हेरचाहमा हुँदा यो विश्वास पुष्टि गर्न सक्दो प्रयास गर्नुहोस्। म माथिका यी कथनहरू मध्ये केही बोल्नमा निर्दोष छैन। यद्यपि, म आश्वस्त हुन सक्छु कि मेरी छोरीको अस्पतालमा बसेपछि बिरामी र उनीहरूका परिवारलाई मैले भनेको कुरामा म अझ सचेत हुनेछु।
सँगी स्वास्थ्य हेरचाहकर्मीहरू, तपाईंका बिरामीहरूसँग आफू र तपाईंको सँगी टोलीका सदस्यहरूमा विश्वास जगाउने तरिकामा अन्तरक्रिया गर्ने छनौट गर्नुहोस्। तपाईंसँग मात्र बिरामीको अनुभवलाई सकारात्मक रूपमा आकार दिने शक्ति छ।
साँच्चै तिम्रो,
एक कृतज्ञ आमा


A. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

a. nightmare            vii. very bad or unpleasant

b. pediatric               iv. relating to the medical care of children

c. intravenous           into or connected to a vein

d. priority                 ii. a thing that is regarded as more important than others

e. medications        i. treatment using drugs

f. confidante            ix. a person with whom private matters and problems are discussed

g. vulnerability        vi. in need of special care, support, or protection

h. deprivation         viii. the lack of something considered to be a necessity

i. dreadful                iii. causing great fear or suffering


B. Write True for true and False for false statements.

a. The sender of the letter was happy with the service of the health workers.

= False

b. The staff of different departments in the hospital had harmonious relationships with each other.

= False

c. The hospital staff were concerned with the requirements of the sick child.

= False

d. The staff of the hospital shared their personal feelings with the writer.

= True

e. The chart was unclear about the patient's gender.


f. The author took the mistakes of the health workers normally.

= True

g. The writer seems to be more sincere in her duty than the hospital staff.

= False


C. Answer the following questions.

a. What was the nightmare for the author?

= The nightmare for the author was the experience of her nine-week old baby developing an extremely high fever.

b. What do you think the main purpose of this letter is?

= The main purpose of this letter is to express the author's appreciation for the skilled doctors and nurses who cared for her baby, but also to highlight the dissatisfaction with the staff's behavior and lack of focus on patient care.

c. According to the author, what was the main weakness of the hospital staff?

= According to the author, the main weakness of the hospital staff was their tendency to bad-mouth their colleagues and prioritize their own needs and skills over the well-being of the patients.

d. Did the nurses really say "your daughter is not a priority"? Why did the author think so?

= The nurses did not directly say "your daughter is not a priority." The author inferred this based on their repeated statements of being busy and the delays in medication administration and other aspects of care.

e. What do the patients and their families expect from the health workers?

= Patients and their families expect health workers to prioritize their well-being, provide attentive and compassionate care, and communicate effectively.

f. List the questions that the author was asked frequently in the hospital.

= The author was frequently asked the questions "Was she premature?" and "Was your delivery normal?" during her hospital stay.

g. Why did the health workers make gender error about the author's daughter?

= The health workers made a gender error about the author's daughter despite her not wearing any obvious gender indicators. The author assumes that there may have been mistakes or lack of attention to detail in her baby's paperwork.

h. According to the author, how do people perceive the career of health workers.

= According to the author, people perceive the career of health workers as not glamorous but as a choice made to help sick people get well. The author emphasizes the importance of confirming this belief through their interactions with patients


D. If you become a health worker in the future, what lessons can you learn from this letter?

As a health worker, there are several lessons to be learned from this letter:


1. Focus on patient-centered care: Always prioritize the needs and well-being of the patients above personal egos or conflicts. Remember that patients and their families expect and deserve your full attention and care.


2. Maintain professionalism: Avoid bad-mouthing colleagues or complaining about them in front of patients or their families. Maintain a positive and supportive working environment.


3. Effective communication: Take the time to listen to patients and their families actively. Avoid making assumptions or mistakes in addressing them, such as gender errors. Apologize sincerely if mistakes are made and make an effort to rectify them.


4. Use documentation properly: Make sure to read and update patient charts accurately, ensuring that important information is recorded and shared with the team. This helps in providing comprehensive and informed care.


5. Reflect on personal behavior: Be mindful of the impact your words and actions have on patients and their families. Strive to instill confidence, provide positive news, and demonstrate genuine care and empathy.


By implementing these lessons, you can contribute to creating a more positive and patient-centered healthcare environment.



B. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. The beginning of each sentence is given.

a. "Please help me fix this machine."

She requested me to help her fix that machine.

b. "Don't please switch on the fan?"
The electrician requested not to switch on the fan.

c. "Help me with my homework, please."
My friend requested to help her with her homework.

d. "Lend me some money, please."
The teacher asked me to lend some money


e. "Do your homework!"
The teacher told me to do my homework.

f. "Don't smoke!"
The doctor advised not to smoke

g. "Don't make a mess!"
My mother advised not to make a mess.




A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life

Ladies and gentlemen.

I'm delighted to have the honour of opening this international conference on the Joint Programming Initiative "A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life".


It's a topic that's never out of the media, with endless variations on whether carbs, fat, sugar or protein are good or bad, or reports on the latest wonder food that will stop cancer in its tracks or help us live longer.


We are now relying on science and innovation to help us tackle the new public health challenge that is diet and lifestyle-related dis- eases such as overweight and obesity-sometimes described as the greatest public health challenge of our times.


It's a challenge that all member states are facing to different degrees, so it makes perfect sense - both scientifically and economically to pool our knowledge together.

That's why this Joint Programming Initiative is so important.

When Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life was launched, the Council of the European Union noted that in the last three decades the levels of overweight and obesity in the EU have risen dramatically, particularly among children, and that the trend of poor diet and low physical activity is getting even worse.

Many chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological and mental disorders, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes can be prevented or modified through better lifestyles and healthier diets.

Different projects are delivering insights such as how diabetes and obesity can be prevented, how they progress, how early diagnosis can improve quality of life, and how to select the best treatments.


But despite the improvements, much more needs to be done, particularly because of the trans-generational effects of obesity and diabetes.

Horizon 2020, Europe's 80-billion-euro research and innovation programme, is designed to tackle society's biggest challenges.

The two things that are most relevant to 'A Healthy Diet for A Healthy
Life' are food safety and the bioeconomy, and health, demographic
change and wellbeing.

For the next seven years, these challenges will fund the very best research on nutrition, health, diet-related disease and ageing and translate the knowledge gained into innovative and effective products, treatments, services and strategies to benefit all patients, and to prevent many people from developing disease in the first place.


It will require an unprecedented level of cooperation along the healthcare innovation chain, starting with researchers that char- acterise diseases, to those who use this knowledge by developing new biomarkers, diagnostics and medicines and to regulators who evaluate and approve them.

Unfortunately, different attempts to encourage healthier eating have not yet led to major changes in patterns of food purchase and consumption.

That's where a multidisciplinary approach comes in, with health and nutrition research and innovation that includes the social sciences. We all know, for example, that understanding people's behaviours and their relationship to food and exercise is vital in helping them to make healthier choices.

I'm convinced that Horizon 2020 can make excellent progress on research and innovation for healthy diets and healthy lives.

There's no point in all this effort if the good intentions of theResearch Agenda aren't turned into concrete action.


So, implementation is important, and this will be achieved first by coordinating national research programmes and activities. Today's launch of the implementation plan marks a major step forward in putting the Strategic Research Agenda into action.

And I also encourage you to explore other avenues besides joint
calls and knowledge networks to implement your Strategic Research
Agenda such as linking to other relevant JPIs and by benefiting from
common European research infrastructures.


Above all, in this critical phase of implementation, I urge the Member States participating in this JPI to unlock national funding for research and to actively engage in aligning national research programmes and innovation policies.

Ladies and gentlemen,


I wish you an excellent conference, full of innovative ideas and interesting discussions. I look forward to hearing the results.

Thank you.

(The text is an adapted version of the opening address to the conference on the Joint Programmaing Initiative (IPI) delivered by Maire Geoghegan Quinn, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, in Brussels on 28 March 2014)


A. Consult a dictionary or the internet and define the following words/phrases.
a. Wonder food:
A term used to describe a food or ingredient that is believed to have extraordinary health benefits or healing properties.


b. Cardiovascular diseases: A group of disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels, including conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.

c. Bioeconomy: An economic system that utilizes biological resources and processes to produce sustainable products, energy, and services.

d. Demographic change: Refers to shifts in the composition and characteristics of a population, including factors such as age, gender, fertility rates, migration patterns, and life expectancy.

e. Multidisciplinary approach: An approach that involves incorporating knowledge and expertise from various disciplines or fields of study to address complex problems or challenges.

f. Economic inequalities: Refers to the disparities or differences in income, wealth, and opportunities among individuals or groups within a society.

g. Neurological disorders: Disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, leading to symptoms such as cognitive impairment, movement problems, seizures, and sensory disturbances.

h. Biomarkers: Biological indicators or measurable characteristics that can be used to assess and evaluate physiological, pathological, or pharmacological processes or responses.

B. Complete the sentences below with one of the words in red from the text above.

d. Your life changes…………. if you perform well in your study

e. Mr. Gurung is leaving the job because of …………disease.
f. Early.................... of a disease helps us to cure it soon.
g. We have faced ……. level of climate change at present.
h. The patient may need blood work or determine his specific health problem.
i. The world looked for different ........ to find the solution to COVID-19.


a. The children were especially delighted that there were enough cookies for each of them to have two.
b. The organization held its annual conference in New York this year. The health ministers of more than forty countries attended it.

c. It is collaboration that makes any organization a successful one.
d. Your life changes well if you perform in your studies.
e. Mr. Gurung is leaving the job because of neurological disease.
f. Early diagnosis of a disease helps us to cure it soon.
g. We have faced unprecedented level of climate change at present.

h. The patient may need blood work or other biomarkers to determine his specific health problem.
i. The world looked for different approaches to find the solution to COVID-19.

C. Choose the best alternatives to complete the following sentences.
a. The greatest public health challenge at present is.

i. cancer                      ii. diabetes                   iii. obesity                  iv. cardiovascular disease

b. The Joint Programming Initiative will bring the ............ of member states together.
i. lifestyle                     ii. economy                 iii. challenge                iv. knowledge

c. The health care innovation chain begins from..
i. researchers                        ii. biomarkers              iii. diagnostics              iv. regulators

d. The need behind multidisciplinary approach is

i. the unchanged pattern of food purchase and consumption
ii. the lack of effective treatments for patients
iii. the poor quality of life
iv. the lack of progress in research and innovation

e. Through this speech, the speaker wants to.........

i. open the conference on the Joint Programming Initiative
ii. invite new public health challenge
iii. launch the programme 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life'
iv. appeal the members of EU for collaboration for research and innovation

D. Answer the following questions.
a. What topic is the speaker talking about when she says, "It's a topic that's never out of the media?"

The speaker is talking about the topic of a healthy diet for a healthy life.

b. According to the speaker, what is the cause of obesity among children in the EU?
According to the speaker, the cause of obesity among children in the EU is the trend of poor diet and low physical activity, which is getting worse.


c. What should people do to prevent themselves from the diseases like type 2 diabetes?
According to the text, people should adopt better lifestyles and healthier diets to prevent diseases like type 2 diabetes.

d. What is Horizon 2020?
Horizon 2020 is Europe's 80-billion-euro research and innovation program designed to tackle society's biggest challenges.

e. Why is research very important to fight against the health challenges?

Research is very important to fight against health challenges because it provides insights, knowledge, and innovations that can lead to better understanding, prevention, and treatment of diseases.


f. What result can Horizon 2020 give if it is implemented effectively?
If implemented effectively, Horizon 2020 can result in innovative and effective products, treatments, services, and strategies for nutrition, health, diet-related diseases, and aging. It can benefit patients by improving their quality of life and preventing the development of diseases.

g. What results does the speaker expect from the conference?

The speaker expects the conference to generate innovative ideas and interesting discussions. The specific results or outcomes desired from the conference are not mentioned in the text.


h. Do you think that the people of the EU will be benefitted by this conference? If yes, what benefits will they get?
It can be inferred that the people of the EU can potentially benefit from this conference. By pooling knowledge and resources, implementing research findings, and promoting healthier lifestyles, the conference aims to address the public health challenges related to diet and improve the well-being of individuals in the EU.

Grammar II

A. Circle the correct words to complete these sentences.
a. The doctor told me do /to do some exercise everyday.
b. She said, "Don't shout /Not to shout."

c. The doctor forbade me to eat/not to eat junk food.
d. I told her, "To speak/Speak slowly."
e. Sumina promised to tell no one/not to tell anyone.
f. My mother said, "To get /Get out of bed early!"

g. The mountain guide warned him to take/not to take the oxygen cylinder.
h. Sugam said to me, "Go To go home and take a rest."
i. He ordered us we got out /to get out of his way.
j. The librarian requested them please do not make not to make a noise.



a. The doctor told me to do some exercise everyday.

b. She said, "Not to shout."

c. The doctor forbade me to eat junk food.

d. I told her to speak slowly.

e. Sumina promised not to tell anyone.

f. My mother said, "Get out of bed early!"

g. The mountain guide warned him not to take the oxygen cylinder.

h. Sugam said to me, "Go home and take a rest."

i. He ordered us to get out of his way.

j. The librarian requested them not to make a noise.


B. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. Use the reporting verbs in brackets.
a. "Bring some sugar, Punita," she said. (ask)
b. "You must submit your assignment soon," the teacher said. (tell)

c. "Remember to come early, Anu," he said. (remind)

d. "You should see a doctor, Mrs Tamang," he said. (advise)

e. "Keep all the windows open, Nona," my father said. (warn)
f. "Go home, Prashun," Furba said. (tell)

a. She asked Punita to bring some sugar.

b. The teacher told me that I must submit my assignment soon.

c. He reminded Anu to come early.

d. He advised Mrs. Tamang to see a doctor.

e. My father warned Nona to keep all the windows open.

f. Furba told Prashun to go home.

C. Report the following sentences in indirect speech.
a. The hermit said, "Don't idle away your time."
b. Madan said to his friend. "Please help me with money."

c. "Be not afraid, noble prince", said the Guru.
d. He said to me, "Let me do my work."
e. The General said to his troops, "Guard the fort.

f. Aaswin said to the teacher, "Please excuse me, madam."
g. The guide said to the visitors, "Follow me carefully."
h. My teacher said to me, "Don't look behind."

i. Mother said to the daughter, "Get ready to receive the guests."

j.  The boy said to the rescuers, "Please help me to get out ofthi s well."
k. The teacher said to the boys, "Read silently."
l. The coach said, "Let's play a friendly football match."
m. The monk said to us, "Give up bad habits."
n. Father said to me, "Do not tell a lie."


a. The hermit advised not to idle away my time.

b. Madan asked his friend to help him with money.

c. The Guru told the noble prince not to be afraid.

d. He asked me to let him do his work.

e. The General instructed his troops to guard the fort.

f. Aaswin requested the teacher to excuse him.

g. The guide asked the visitors to follow him carefully.

h. My teacher told me not to look behind.

i. Mother told the daughter to get ready to receive the guests.

j. The boy pleaded with the rescuers to help him get out of the well.

k. The teacher told the boys to read silently.

l. The coach suggested playing a friendly football match.

m. The monk urged us to give up bad habits.

n. Father told me not to tell a lie.

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