Class eight english


Unit 1

A Tour to Central Zoo


Saraswati Niketan Secondary School

Teku, Kathmandu



                                                                                                                            Date: 20th June


The school is organizing an educational tour to the Central Zoo, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur on 24th June for the students of Grade Eight. The timetable of the tour activities is scheduled as follows:

Arrive at school and arrange groups


9:00 a.m.

Board the bus


9:15 a.m.



9:20 a.m.

Reach Central Zoo


9:45 a.m.

Form small animal groups (See animal groups below.)


10:00 a.m.

Board the bus

10:05 a.m.

Explore the animals in the zoo

10:05 a.m.- 2:00 p.m.

Enter the zoo

2:10 p.m.


2:15 p.m.

Arrive back at school

2:40 p.m.

Return to classroom

2:50 p.m.

Grand discussion


2:50 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.

Animal groups:

a. Birds                        b. Reptiles                   c. Mammals                 d. Amphibians


Note: Mrs. Karki, the English teacher will lead the tour. Students are expected to follow the timetable and the guidelines given by the teacher.


A. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

a. tour -            iii. a visit to a place

b. board -         iv. to get on or into a vehicle

c. explore -      i. to travel to or around an area to learn about it

d. grand-         v. large and important

e. amphibian-   ii. any animal that can live both on land and in water


B. Answer these questions.

a. What time do the students need to arrive at school?

=  The students need to arrive at school by 9:00 a.m.

b. How long will it take them to reach the zoo from their school?

= It will take them approximately 45 minutes to reach the zoo from their school, as they are scheduled to reach the zoo at 10:00 a.m. after boarding the bus at 9:15 a.m.


c. Why do you think the teacher will take the students' attendance twice?

= The teacher will take the students' attendance twice to ensure that all students are present and accounted for at both the start of the tour and when they return to the school. It helps in maintaining the safety and keeping track of the students throughout the tour.


d. Why do you think the students will explore the zoo in animal groups?

= The students will explore the zoo in animal groups to enhance their learning experience. By grouping the animals into different categories such as birds, reptiles, mammals, and amphibians, the students can focus on specific types of animals and gain a deeper understanding of their characteristics, habitats, and behaviors.


e. Who should the students contact if they have any problem during the tour?

= The students should contact Mrs. Karki, the English teacher, who is leading the tour, if they have any problems during the tour. She will likely be responsible for ensuring the students' well-being and addressing any issues or concerns that may arise.


C. You might have been on an educational tour from your school. Share the most exciting activity you had during the tour.

As an AI language model, I don't have personal experiences or memories. However, I can tell you that some common exciting activities during educational tours could include visiting historical sites, participating in interactive workshops or demonstrations, exploring nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, or engaging in hands-on experiments or experiments related to the subjects being studied. Each educational tour can offer unique and memorable experiences for students.



A. Act out the following dialogue in pairs. Notice the use of would and could.


Raima :Namaste, sir! Are we going to the national museum this month?


Sanjeev: Yes, we are.


Raima : Could you tell me the day of the visit?


Sanjeev: We're going there on Monday at 9:00 a.m.


Raima: Sorry, would you tell the time again, please? I couldn't quite get you.


Sanjeev: Of course. It's 9:00 a.m.

Raima: Thank you, sir.


B. Work in pairs. Study the following situations. Now, ask and answer the questions. Begin the questions with could, would or can.

a. You want to know your teacher's mobile number.

Student: Could you please tell me your mobile number, teacher?

Teacher: I'm sorry, but I prefer not to share my mobile number with students.


b. You want to know how much a cup of coffee costs.

Person: Excuse me, would you mind telling me how much a cup of coffee costs?

Cafe Staff: A cup of coffee costs $2.50.


c. You want to know what time you can get an appointment to see the dentist.

Person: Can you tell me what time I can get an appointment to see the dentist?

Receptionist: The dentist has availability at 11:00 a.m. tomorrow. Would that work for you?

Person: Yes, that would be fine. Thank you.


Grammar 1


A. Change the following statements into yes/no questions.

a. They could rescue the victims.

= Could they rescue the victims?

b. Linda can win the match.

= Can Linda win the match?

c. Your mother can drive a car.

= Can your mother drive a car?

d. You could help me.

= Could you help me?

e. He would suggest a solution to a problem.

= Would he suggest a solution to a problem?

f. They would do social work.

= Would they do social work?

g. Your father would take us to the park.

= Would your father take us to the park?

h. You could come to meet me.

= Could you come to meet me?


B. Fill in the blanks using can, could and would. Use negation if necessary.

a. I couldn't go to the party last night because I was sick.

b. A: Can Ganesh cook Thakali food? B: Yes, he can.

c. My sister could ride a bike last year, but now she can't.

d. If I had a car, I could drive it around the city.

e. Lots of dinosaurs walked on land, but some could fly or even swim.

f. I wish they would take us to visit a new place.

g. I can't read without my reading glasses. Where are they?

h. I would rather go to the cinema today.




A Request Letter


Kushma 9, Parbat

27 April 2023


The Headteacher

Adarsha Secondary School

Kushma, Parbat


                        Subject: A Request to increase computer lab facilities


Respected Sir,


We are very grateful that you have been successful in establishing a computer lab at our school. We are overjoyed seeing a computer lab at our school. The lab provides us with the most up-to-date learning devices. It helps us gain technological knowledge too.


This admirable effort, however, is not quite sufficient in accomplishing its goal. In fact, the lab is lacking some necessary equipment. To begin with, there are insufficient numbers of computers. Second, only a few computers have the required software installed. This limits our learning. Third, our lab does not have an internet connection. So, we cannot access the vast world of knowledge and information.


We would be thankful if you provided us with all the necessities for a modern computer lab at our school. We would welcome your reply to our request. Thank you.


Yours faithfully,

Students of Grade 8


A. The meanings of some of the words from the above letter are given below. The words are scrambled. Unscramble and write them.

a. having qualities that you admire and respect          = admirable

b. tools needed for a particular purpose                      = equipment

c. not having enough of something                             = lacking

d. large in area, amount, etc.                                       = vast

e. the programs used by a computer                           = software


B. Answer these questions.

a. Who wrote the letter?

= Students of Grade 8 wrote the letter.


b. Who is the letter addressed to?

= The letter is addressed to the Headteacher.


c. Why are the students of Grade 8 grateful to the headteacher?

= the students of Grade 8 is grateful to the headteacher because the headteacher established a computer lab at their school.


d. Why are the students very happy about the computer lab?

= The students are very happy about the computer lab because it provides them with up-to-date learning devices and helps them gain technological knowledge.


e. List the three issues the students talk about.

=1. Insufficient numbers of computers.

2. Only a few computers have the required software installed.

3. Lack of an internet connection in the lab.


Grammar II

A. These sentences are from the letter. Complete them with the missing words.

a. Grade eight students are grateful for the computer lab.

b. The lab provides us with the most up-to-date learning devices.

c. It helps us gain technological knowledge too.

d. Only a few computers have the required software installed.

e. This limits our learning.


B. Rearrange the jumbled words to form correct sentences in simple present as shown in the example.


The bus to Dharan leaves at 9:00 a.m.


a. work/he/in a department store.

b. Suman/at the weekend/do his laundry.

c. my friends and I/once a month/go to the cinema.

d. give/nice gift/a/me/my neighbour/never.

e. playing/always/love/the guitar/Akash.

f. a doctor/mother/be/my.

g. drive/she/always/too fast/her scooter.

h. the day/a lot of/work/people/during.

i. where/your brother/work?

j. what time/your sister/every day/get up?


a. He works in a department store.

b. Suman does his laundry at the weekend.

c. My friends and I go to the cinema once a month.

d. My neighbor never gives me a nice gift.

e. Akash always loves playing the guitar.

f. My mother is a doctor.

g. She always drives her scooter too fast.

h. A lot of people work during the day.

i. Where does your brother work?

j. What time does your sister get up every day?


C. Complete the following text using the present simple form of the verbs in the brackets.


Peter Hanson starts his day at 7:00. He has his breakfast in the kitchen with all the family. He likes orange juice, toast, and milk. He always has an apple; his mother believes "an apple a day keeps the doctor away." After breakfast , Peter makes his bed and tidies up his bedroom. He gets ready for lessons. He mustn't be late, his mother is very strict




































Changing World


When I was a young man,

I wanted to change the world.

I found it was difficult to change the world

So I tried to change my nation.


When I found that I couldn't change the nation,

I began to focus on my town.

I couldn't change the town

And as an older man, I tried to change my family.


Now, as an old man, I realized the only thing

I can change is myself.

And suddenly I realized,

That if long ago I had changed myself.


I could have made an impact on my family.

My family and I could have made an impact on our town.

Their impact could have changed the nation

And I could, indeed, have changed the world.


                                                            -Edward de Bono

A. Learn these words from the poem and complete the sentences using them.

a. Great people always realize their mistake.

b. The meal was very delicious indeed.

c. Excessive use of electronic devices has negative impacts on our mental health.

d. Thank you for your offer, but I cannot change my mind.

e. Our exam is approaching, but I cannot focus on my studies.


B. Answering the questions:

a. Why do you think the poet wants to change himself?

= The poet wants to change himself because he realizes that personal change is the only thing he has control over. He understands that by changing himself, he can have a positive impact on his family, town, nation, and ultimately, the world.


b. Why does poet feel sorry in the poem?

= The poet feels sorry in the poem because he realizes that he spent much of his life trying to change things outside of his control. He realizes that he could have made a greater impact if he had focused on changing himself earlier.


c. What does the poet realize when he grew older?

= When the poet grew old, he realized that the only thing he can change is himself. He understands that personal transformation is essential, and if he had changed himself long ago, it could have had a ripple effect, leading to positive changes in his family, town, nation, and the world.


d. If the poet had changed himself, what could have happened?

=  If the poet had changed himself, it is implied that his personal growth and positive actions would have influenced his family. Their collective impact could have had a positive effect on their town. The positive changes in the town could have then spread to the nation, potentially leading to significant changes in the world.


e. Is changing the world easy or tough? Give your opinion.

= Changing the world is not easy; it is a complex and challenging task. The poem suggests that instead of trying to change the world directly, we should focus on changing ourselves first. By improving ourselves and our actions, we can create a ripple effect that may lead to positive changes in our immediate surroundings, which can gradually extend to larger communities and the world. Therefore, while it may be difficult to change the world on a global scale, changing ourselves and our immediate environment is within our power and can ultimately contribute to a broader impact.


C. How can we change ourselves and society?

= Changing ourselves and society requires individual and collective effort. Here are some ways to initiate change:


1. Self-reflection and personal growth: Start by reflecting on your own attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. Identify areas for improvement and work on personal growth. Cultivate qualities like empathy, kindness, open-mindedness, and self-awareness.


2. Education and awareness: Seek knowledge about social issues, inequalities, and injustices. Stay informed through books, articles, documentaries, and discussions. Develop a broader understanding of societal challenges to inspire and inform your actions.


3. Promote dialogue and understanding: Engage in meaningful conversations with others, even when you have differing opinions. Foster a culture of open dialogue, active listening, and empathy. By understanding diverse perspectives, we can build bridges and find common ground.


4. Lead by example: Be a role model for positive change. Act with integrity, compassion, and fairness in your personal and professional life. Show kindness, respect, and inclusivity in your interactions with others. Small actions can inspire others and create a ripple effect.


5. Advocate for change: Use your voice to raise awareness about societal issues. Support causes aligned with your values by volunteering, donating, or participating in peaceful demonstrations. Contact your representatives, sign petitions, and support organizations working for positive change.


6. Collaborate and build communities: Engage with like-minded individuals and organizations to create collective impact. Collaborate on projects, initiatives, and campaigns that promote social justice, sustainability, and equality. By joining forces, we can amplify our efforts and create lasting change.


7. Be resilient and patient: Changing ourselves and society is a long-term process. It requires persistence, resilience, and patience. Embrace setbacks and



UNIT - 3

Public Announcements


Pre-flight Announcement

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Welcome to Flight RA-402 from Kathmandu to New Delhi. We're currently third in line for takeoff and are expected to be in the air in approximately five minutes. Please fasten your seatbelts and secure your baggage underneath your seat or in the overhead compartments. Make sure that you put your seat in the upright position for take-off. We also request you to turn off all personal gadgets, including laptops and mobile phones. Smoking is strictly prohibited during the flight. Thank you for choosing Nepal Airlines. Enjoy your flight.

                                                                                                                        Nepal Airlines


Parents Day Announcement

We are pleased to announce that our school is going to celebrate Parents Day on the 22nd of March on the auspicious occasion of its 42nd anniversary. The programme will be held in the Assembly Hall at 11:00 a.m. We feel privileged to announce that the Mayor of Bardaghat Municipality will grace the ceremony as the chief guest. We feel proud to announce that the mayor is an ex-student of this school. He will confer the prizes to the winning students in academic, extra-curricular and co-curricular activities. There is also a cultural performance by our talented students to entertain the audience. There will also be a short photo session with the chief guest at the end of the programme. Thank you!

                                                                                         Dibya Jyoti Secondary School


A. Find the correct words from the text to complete the sentences below.

a. We had to pay extra amount for our baggage in the aeroplane.

b. Would you switch off all your personal gadgets as the plane is going to take off?

c. Tomorrow is my parents' wedding anniversary.

d. The Chief Guest will confer the prizes to the winners.

e. Please keep your seat in the upright position. The plane is going to land soon.

f. Our school will remain closed for 15 days on the auspicious occasion of Dashain.


B. Write True or False for the following statements.

a. Pre-flight announcement is about the landing of an aeroplane.

= False

b. Baggage should be kept either under the seat or in the overhead compartments.

= True

c. Parents Day is going to be celebrated on March 21st.

= False

d. A dance will be performed by professional artists on the Parents Day.

= False

e. The photo session is scheduled at the beginning of the programme.

= False


C. Answer these questions.

a.. What are the first and the second announcements about?

= The first announcement is a pre-flight announcement for a flight from Kathmandu to New Delhi, providing instructions to passengers before takeoff. The second announcement is about the Parents Day celebration at a school.


b. State the travel route of flight RA-402.

= The travel route of flight RA-402 is from Kathmandu to New Delhi.


c. Why do you think the seats should be in the upright position during the takeoff?

= The seats should be in the upright position during takeoff for safety reasons. It ensures that passengers are in a secure position and can evacuate the aircraft quickly in case of an emergency.


d. Who is the Chief Guest on the Parents Day?

= The Chief Guest on the Parents Day is the Mayor of Bardaghat Municipality.


e. When and where is the Parents Day programme scheduled to be held?

= The Parents Day programme is scheduled to be held on the 22nd of March in the Assembly Hall of the school.


D. Why do you think it is important to celebrate Parents Day? Talk to your friends.

= Celebrating Parents Day is important as it provides an opportunity to honor and appreciate our parents for their love, support, and sacrifices. It allows us to express gratitude and strengthen the bond between parents and children. It also serves as a reminder of the crucial role parents play in our lives and the importance of their involvement in our education and overall development. By celebrating Parents Day, we acknowledge the value of their contributions and show them how much they are cherished and loved. It is a special occasion to create lasting memories and to reciprocate the care and affection we receive from our parents.



A. Match the questions on the left with their reported speech. Notice the changes.

a. Can Sharmila read a book?             = iii. The teacher asked if Sharmila could read a book.

b. Was the waiter rude?          = v. My aunt wanted to know whether the waiter had been rude.

c. Is Puman his teacher?                      = vi. They asked whether Punam was his teacher.

d. Does she have a problem?              = ii. Elis asked whether she had a problem.

e. Does he love playing tennis?           = She asked if he loved playing tennis.

f) Did the boss notice the mistake?    =  iv. She asked if the boss had noticed the mistake.


Reported Speech:

a. My father asked if she spent her money on books.

b. They asked if the farmer had decided to sell her old oxen.

c. She asked if she could borrow my pen.

d. Rajani asked if the students should concentrate on their studies.

e. Milan asked if I would come to his housewarming party the next day.

f. My friend wanted to know if Srijana was born in this hospital.

g. The waiter questioned if he had put the spoon on the table.

h. My father asked if his mother was a professor of History.

i. Rachana inquired if his sister had gone to the market.

j. She asked if I was a foreigner.



How to Wash Clothes in a Washing Machine

A washing machine is a home appliance used to do the laundry. It washes clothes automatically without having t supervise its operation. All one has to do is to put the clothes in the machine and select the wash mode. Here are a few steps to wash clothes.


Step 1: Separate Your Laundry

Sorting your laundry into different piles based on fabric type and colour is step number one. You should also check the care label of each garment for washing instructions so as to avoid 

damaging your fabrics. Make sure to pay extra attention to your more delicate items: you should wash them either by hand, or on the delicate cycle and in a mesh bag.


Step 2: Load the Washing Machine

This is the step where you dump your clothes into your washer. Make sure not to overload your clothes as it may result in the clothes not being washed as they should be.


Step 3: Add Detergent and Fabric Softener

Before adding your choice of detergent and fabric softener, make sure you read your washer's manual to find out which goes where. The amount of detergent needed varies by load size and washing machine type, so check the back of the detergent box and look for any labels on your washing machine to find out how much you should use.


Step 4: Turn on the Washer

Just close the door and hit the start button. Some washing machines can indicate that the door is not closed properly, while some cannot.


Step 5: Choose the Right Washing Cycle

Wash cycle consists of two important speeds: a speed at which it agitates or tumbles your clothes with water, and a speed that spins the water out of your clothes. Once again, when picking the correct washing cycle, you should refer to the fabric care label. This way, you can maximize cleanliness while also protecting your clothes. Your options range from normal and permanent press to delicate and quick cycles.


Step 6: Set the Water Temperature

Using the correct water setting in your washer can make a difference in your laundry. Hot water, for instance, sanitizes and kills germs better. But in some cases, it can shrink your clothes, fade your fabrics, set certain stains, and requires a lot

more energy. So, reserve hot water washes for bath and kitchen towels, bedding, sturdy fabrics and any extremely dirtied items. For moderately dirty loads, dark colours, and the permanent press cycle, use warm water. Cold water is the gentlest way of washing your garments, and it also requires less energy.


Step 7: Clean Your Washing Machine

Regular cleaning with a washing machine cleaner is an important part of knowing how to use washing machines. Leave your washing machine door open after use to allow it to air out and help prevent mold from growing.


A. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

a. appliance     = i. a device designed to perform a specific task

b. agitate         = ii. to make something move around by shaking

c. shrink           = iii. to squeeze

d. detergent     = iv. a water-soluble cleansing substance

e. dump           = v. to deposit in a careless way

f. mold                        = vi. fungus


B. Answer these questions.

a. What is a washing machine?

= A washing machine is a home appliance designed to automatically wash clothes without the need for manual supervision.


b. Why do you think it is necessary to separate the laundry?

= It is necessary to separate the laundry to prevent color bleeding, fabric damage, and to ensure optimal washing for each type of fabric. Separating clothes based on fabric type and color helps prevent colors from bleeding onto lighter fabrics or delicate items from being damaged by rougher fabrics.


c. How can the user maximize the cleanliness of clothes?

= To maximize the cleanliness of clothes, the user can follow the care instructions on the garment labels, use an appropriate amount of detergent, choose the right washing cycle for the fabric type, and set the water temperature according to the garment's needs. Additionally, avoiding overloading the washing machine allows for better agitation and cleaning of the clothes.


d. Mention the effects of overloading.

= Overloading the washing machine can lead to inadequate cleaning of the clothes as they won't have enough space to move freely and be agitated properly. It can also strain the washing machine's motor and other components, potentially causing damage to the machine. Overloading may result in clothes not being thoroughly rinsed or spun, leaving them wetter than desired.


e. Why should we clean a washing machine regularly?

= Regular cleaning of a washing machine is important to maintain its performance and prevent the buildup of dirt, detergent residue, and mold. Cleaning helps remove odors, keeps the machine functioning properly, and extends its lifespan. Leaving the washing machine door open after use allows it to air out and helps prevent the growth of mold.


f. Do you think the text is useful for you? How?

= As an AI language model, I don't have personal experiences or opinions, but the text provides a useful guide for understanding the basic steps involved in washing clothes in a washing machine. It covers important aspects such as sorting laundry, choosing the right cycle and water temperature, and the significance of proper maintenance. The text can be helpful for someone who wants to learn or refresh their knowledge on how to use a washing machine effectively.


C. Make a list of the home appliances you have at your home. Write operation instructions for any one of them in brief.

Appliance: Microwave Oven

Operation Instructions:

1. Plug in the microwave oven to a power outlet.

2. Open the microwave door and place the food or container inside, ensuring it is microwave-safe.

3. Close the door securely.

4. Set the desired cooking time using the control panel or keypad.

5. Adjust the power level if necessary

6. Press the "Start" button to initiate the cooking process.

7. Monitor the food as it cooks and use oven mitts or gloves to handle hot containers.

8. Once the cooking time is complete, the microwave will typically emit a beep or signal. Open the door carefully and remove the food or container.

9. Unplug the microwave when not in use to conserve energy.


Grammar II

Change the following questions into reported speech.

a. Pawan asked if I was going to the store.

b. Pallawi asked if my sister was coming to the party.

c. Sophie asked me if I liked pizza.

d. Siddhartha asked Rani if her cat liked to chase mice.

e. The










A Visit to Mustang

I knew a little about Mustang, Nepal before I visited it in early 2020. I was curious to see a place untouched by tourists, away from the busy life of Hong Kong. Mustang has only been open to tourists since 1992 and non- Nepali tourists need a special travel permit to enter Upper Mustang.


On the first night, I stayed in Pokhara to meet up with my tour group. Pokhara is the starting point for many treks that can be taken in the Himalayas. The staff of the hotel provided me with cushions and blankets to ensure I would not get cold during the night.


The next day, my tour guide Reena, picked me up early and we jumped in a jeep to start the journey. January in Nepal is usually somewhere between 00 to -150 C in the Himalayas. For that reason, the winter months draw few tourists to Nepal. Even though I was on my own, I was not lonely as we ended up picking up and dropping off several locals on the way.


After a full seven hours travel, we arrived at our first travel spot - Tatopani, meaning a hot spring. The spring itself was a small but charming natural pool. While relaxing in the warm water, my tour guide shared about her life growing up in Nepal. She told me about the rustic daily living conditions. The natural beauty of the place combined with its loving people was something that could not be replaced anywhere else in the world.


Next day, we continued our trip from Tatopani to Kagbeni along the Kali Gandaki River. We saw the Himalayan mountain range, cliffs, eroded lands, and canyons.


After the unforgettable journey, we finally arrived at Muktinath Temple, beautiful a place located in about 3710 metres in the Annapurna range. Sacred for both the Hindus and Buddhists, the temple is also well known for attracting many pilgrims of different religions.


Decorated with colourful flags, the temple offers panoramic views of the Himalayas. Buddhists say this is the only place on earth to host five elements of life. They have been symbolised in the colours of flags. Blue symbolises sky, white symbolises air, red symbolises fire, green symbolises water, and yellow symbolises earth. Five colours altogether represent a balance.


After enduring a freezing night in a teahouse in Muktinath, we awoke to a beautiful sunrise over the mountains. After a quick bite to eat, we headed back into the jeep to visit the historical village of Marpha. Two hours later, the wheels of our van bumped into the heart of the village to have a look around.


The town is famous in the area for its apple trees and unique architecture. The houses are built close together with flat roofing, creating a network of narrow alleyways that snake endlessly. Given the proximity of all the houses, the locals seemed to mingle naturally and create a close-knit community.


Awaking in Marpha on the last day of my journey, I felt refreshed and warm. The previous night, I was finally able to enjoy a hot shower, a luxury I had gone without for three days.


My time in Mustang was truly unforgettable!

                                                                        (Adapted from a memoir by Phoenix Yu)

A. Learn these words and complete the following sentences using them.

a. She studied history of art and architecture at the university.

b. All alleyways the of the city are resurfaced.

c. Many pilgrims visit the Muktinath Temple every year.

d. I found Nepali people charming and helpful.

e. One can enjoy the panoramic view of the Kathmandu Valley from the top of the Dharahara.


B. Put these sentences from the text above in the correct order:

a. It took seven hours for the writer to reach Tatopani.

b. The tourist guide shared experiences about her life with the writer.

c. The writer took a hot shower.

d. The writer appreciated the hotel staff in Pokhara.

e. The writer, together with other members, visited Marpha village.

f. The writer spent a night in Pokhara and met her tour group.

Answer: .

1. f. The writer spent a night in Pokhara and met her tour group.

2. d. The writer appreciated the hotel staff in Pokhara.

3. a. It took seven hours for the writer to reach Tatopani.

4. b. The tourist guide shared experiences about her life with the writer.

5. e. The writer, together with other members, visited Marpha village.

6. c. The writer took a hot shower.


C. Answer these questions.

a. Is it easy for non-Nepalis to enter Upper Mustang?

- No, non-Nepali tourists need a special travel permit to enter Upper Mustang.

b. Why was the writer given cushions and blankets at the hotel in Pokhara?

To ensure the writer wouldn't get cold during the night.

c. Why do only a few tourists visit Nepal in January?

- January in Nepal is usually very cold, and the winter months draw few tourists.

d. What was the Tatopani spring like?

- The Tatopani spring was small but charming, a natural pool.

e. Where does Kagbeni lie?

- Kagbeni lies along the Kali Gandaki River.

f. What, according to the Buddhists, are the five elements of life?

- According to the Buddhists, the five elements of life are symbolized by the colors of flags: blue for sky, white for air, red for fire, green for water, and yellow for earth.



A. Complete these sentences with missing words/phrases from the reading text. Discuss with your friends to identify the tenses.

a. Mustang has been open to tourists since 1992.

b. On the first night, I stayed in Pokhara to meet up with my tour group.

c. Next day, we continued our trip from Tatopani to Kagbeni.

d. They have been symbolized in the colors of flags.

e. I felt refreshed and warm.


B. Read the given paragraph carefully. Underline the verbs in the sentences and identify their tenses.

Have you ever had a frightening experience? I have had one. Some years ago, I was heading to Biratnagar from Kathmandu by plane. It was alright at the beginning but suddenly a problem occurred. The captain of the plane said to us in a very calm voice, "Ladies and gentlemen, we're having a problem with one of the engines. There's no need to panic but keep your seatbelts fastened. We are heading back to Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu." I felt a pain in my chest and people started to cry. After some time, we landed successfully back at the airport. I sighed with relief! Since then, I have decided not to travel in a plane.


The underlined verbs and their tenses:

- had (past simple)

- was (past simple)

- occurred (past simple)

- said (past simple)

- felt (past simple)

- started (past simple)

- landed (past simple)

- sighed (past simple)

- have decided (present perfect)

- travel (infinitive)


C. Fill in the blanks with one of the two alternatives given in the brackets.





























A Diary Entry

Saturday, 5 March 2022

Time: 10:00 p.m.


Dear Diary,


Brought up in the Western world, I was unaware of Nepal before. But as soon as I heard about Nepal, I could not stop myself visiting here. Fortunately, the long-awaited day came in 2022.


Today, I went to a Nepali village located in Dhading district from Kathmandu. My day started very early in the morning. I was very excited. I travelled with my Nepali friend on an old bus at 7 a.m. in the morning. The bus was decorated with colourful images. It travelled along bumpy and windy roads and I nearly fell off my seat a few times. We stopped at a rest stop halfway for coffee. Later, two young boys jumped onto the bus with instruments and played Nepali songs. I gave them fifty rupees because they made me feel close to the Nepali community. I would have given them more money if I had any to spare.


We arrived in the main village near the river and walked up a steep hillside. Finally, we reached a smaller village. My friend's large extended family lived there. They were very friendly. They served me a delicious lunch that included rice and curry in a traditional Nepali kitchen. I was so happy to see life in a rural village and meet lovely people. I was introduced to all the families of the village. I played football with the youngest child - he was good. I also had popcorn and Daal for a snack in the afternoon. I looked at the oxen, goats and stroked a baby goat (kid). I also enjoyed looking at the view from the top of the hill. The view from there was charming which I cannot describe in words. Though I liked to stay there longer, we had to return. We left the place at 3.00 p.m. bidding goodbye to all.


The journey back to Kathmandu was tiring. We walked down the hill from the village which was hard. There were very few public vehicles with lots of passengers inside. We caught a bus that arrived on the main road. Soon, I quickly found a vacant seat and sat. I closed my eyes as we travelled and fell asleep for ten minutes. A man got onto the bus and played a musical instrument, which was interesting. However, I could not understand the words! I got off the bus and went to the supermarket on my way home to buy some bread and eggs. If I did that again, I would buy a bar of chocolate to take home as a treat. I arrived home in the evening, ate an omelette with bread, and got into bed early. I was really tired and sleepy.


I write a diary every night so I can remember the amazing adventures I have had. I think I will start to write my diary during the day though, not just at night - I am always too tired to write.


I had a wonderful day today. I will always remember the journey. the village, and meeting the family. In fact, the friendliness and support of Nepali people is really admirable.



A. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

a. bumpy           iii. (of a surface) uneven/not smooth

b. rural              iv. connected with or like the countryside

c. charming        i. very pleasant or attractive

d. tiring             vi. making you feel the need to sleep or rest

e. steep              ii. (of a slope) rising or falling quickly

f. admirable        v. deserving respect, excellent


B. Decide whether these statements are True or False. Write NG (not given) if the information is not given.

a. This was Neil's first visit to Nepal.

b. He visited the village together with his friend from England.

c. Neil did not like the music and the song.

d. He admires the Nepali people.

e. Neil never closed his eyes throughout his journey so that he could enjoy the scenery.

f. Neil is going back to his homeland in the near future.


a. True

b. True

c. False

d. True

e. False

f. NG


C. Answer these questions.

a. When did the writer visit a village in Dhading?

= The writer visited a village in Dhading on Saturday, 5 March 2022.

b. Why did the writer give some money to the boys on the bus?

= The writer gave some money to the boys on the bus because they made him feel close to the Nepali community.

c. Was the journey to the village comfortable for the writer? Why?

= The journey to the village was not comfortable for the writer because the roads were bumpy and windy, and the bus was old.

d. Why does the writer feel he needs to write diary during the day?

= The writer feels he needs to write the diary during the day because he is always too tired to write at night

e. What did the writer like the most about Nepal?

= The writer liked the friendliness and support of Nepali people the most about Nepal.



A. Complete these sentences with the correct forms of the verbs. Use simple past or present perfect tenses. Use negative forms where necessary.

a. A: Did you watch the movie "The Queen"?

B: No, I haven't. Actually, I ................ (never/watch) English movies.

b. Sam ...... (visit) Bali a year ago.

c. My best friend and I ............. (know) each other for fifteen years. We meet very often.

d. Sunita is a fantastic writer. She ten books. . (already write)

e. We............ (go) on a picnic yesterday but my younger brother (do/not).

f. Ranjita:. yesterday? they.. ...........(play) chess Dawa: No, they didn't. I did though.

g..... you. ............ (brush) your teeth yet?

h. He (arrive) here yet. He must have got stuck in the traffic.

i. 'What's wrong with you?' I (lose) my pen.


a. A: Did you watch the movie "The Queen"?

   B: No, I haven't. Actually, I have never watched English movies.

b. Sam visited Bali a year ago.

c. My best friend and I have known each other for fifteen years. We meet very often.

d. Sunita is a fantastic writer. She has already written ten books.

e. We went on a picnic yesterday, but my younger brother did not go.

f. Ranjita: Did they play chess yesterday?

   Dawa: No, they didn't. I did though.

g. Have you brushed your teeth yet?

h. He hasn't arrived here yet. He must have got stuck in the traffic.

i. 'What's wrong with you?' I lost my pen.


B. Use present perfect or simple past forms of the verbs to make sentences from the given clues, as in the example.

Example: Udit/already sing/many songs Udit has already sung many songs.

a. We/know each other/since 2019.

We have known each other since 2019.

b. Mohammad/buy a house/in July last year.

Mohammad bought a house in July last year.

c. The Nepali Cricket Team/already win/several

The Nepali Cricket Team has already won several matches.

d. I/never visit/a museum.

I have never visited a museum.

e. People/grow/a lot of rice last year?

Did people grow a lot of rice last year?

f. Phurba/sing a song/just now.

Phurba just sang a song.

g. Diana/leave for England/last week?

Did Diana leave for England last week?

h. My parents/live/in Stockholm/for several years.

My parents have been living in Stockholm for several years.

i. It/rain/a lot last winter?

Did it rain a lot last winter?


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