Class 10 Computer Notes

 

Chapter-1

NETWORKING AND TELECOMMUNICATION

 




A. Short answers questions:

1. What is data communication?

= Data communication is the exchange of data between devices via some form of transmission medium.

2. List out the components of data communication.

= The components of data communication are as follows:

i)  Sender

ii) Receiver

iii) Medium

iv) Protocols

v) Interfaces.

3. What is computer network?

= A computer network is a collection of interconnected devices that can communicate and share resources.

4. What do you mean by server and workstation?

= A server is a central computer that provides data or services to other devices on the network, while a workstation is a personal computer used by an individual for tasks such as data processing or software development.


5. What do you mean by dedicated server and non-dedicated server?

= A dedicated server is exclusively allocated to serve the needs of one user or organization, while a non-dedicated server may serve multiple users or purposes.

6. What is Network Interface Card? Why does it require in computer?

= A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a hardware component that enables a device to connect to a network.

          It's required in computers to facilitate communication over a network.

7. What is transmission media? List its types.

= Transmission media refers to the physical pathways through which data travels in a network.

          Its types are as follows:

i) Guided or bounded or wired transmission media

ii) Unguided or Unbounded or Wireless transmission media


8. What is bandwidth? What is the measuring unit of bandwidth?

= Bandwidth is the capacity of a communication channel to transmit data.

                   Its measuring unit is typically bits per second (bps) or a multiple thereof, such as Mbps or Gbps.


9. What is guided transmission media? List any three guided transmission media.

= Guided transmission media are those that use a physical conductor to transmit data.

          Some guided transmission medias are as follows:

i) Twisted pair cable

ii) Coaxial cable,

iii) Fiber optic cable

iv) Wireless transmission.

10. What is unguided transmission media? List any three unguided transmission media.
= Unguided transmission media, also known as wireless media, transmit data through the air without the use of a physical conductor.

                   Some unguided transmission medias are as follows:

i) Radio waves

ii) Microwaves

iii) Infrared.


11. What is the role of modem in data transmission?
= A modem (modulator-demodulator) converts digital data from a computer into analog signals for transmission over analog communication lines, and vice versa. It enables communication between digital devices over analog networks.


12. Different between VTP and STP cable.
= VTP (Twisted Pair) and STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) cables differ in their shielding capabilities, with STP offering better protection against electromagnetic interference.


13. Difference between Hub and Switch.
= A hub operates at the physical layer of the OSI model and simply forwards data to all connected devices, while a switch operates at the data link layer and intelligently routes data only to the intended recipient, improving network efficiency.


14. Difference between Server and Workstation.
= A server is a central computer that provides data or services to other devices on the network, while a workstation is a personal computer used by an individual for tasks such as data processing or software development.

15. What is network topology? List the three basis topologies.
= Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of devices on a network. Basic topologies include bus, star, and ring.


16. What is communication protocol? List any four network protocols.

= A communication protocol is a set of rules and conventions that govern how data is transmitted and received between devices in a network. Examples include TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.


B. Long answer questions.
1. What are the different data transmission modes? Explain about them.
= The different data transmission modes are as follows:
i. Simplex Mode:

In simplex mode, data is transmitted in only one direction. One device is the sender, and the other device is the receiver. The receiver can only receive data and cannot send any back. Examples of simplex mode include television and radio broadcasting.


b. Half-Duplex Mode:

In half-duplex mode, data can be transmitted in both directions, but not simultaneously. Devices can both send and receive data, but not at the same time. Instead, they take turns transmitting and receiving. Walkie-talkies are an example of half-duplex mode.


c. Full-Duplex Mode:

In full-duplex mode, data can be transmitted simultaneously in both directions. This means that devices can send and receive data at the same time without having to take turns. Ethernet connections and telephone networks using separate lines for sending and receiving data are examples of full-duplex mode.


2. Write any four advantages and disadvantages of computer network.
= Four advantages of computer network are as follows:
i) Communication: Enables seamless communication and collaboration among users.

ii) Resource Sharing: Facilitates sharing of hardware, software, and data resources.

iii) Cost Efficiency: Reduces costs associated with hardware and software duplication.

iv)  Accessibility: Allows remote access to resources, enhancing flexibility and productivity.


Four disadvantages of computer network are as follows:

i) Security Risks: Vulnerable to cyber threats like hacking, malware, and data breaches.

ii) Dependency: Network failures can disrupt operations and cause downtime.

iii) Complexity: Maintenance and management of network infrastructure require expertise.

iv) Privacy Concerns: Raises issues of privacy infringement and unauthorized access to sensitive information.


3. Computer Network Reduces Expenses of an Office justify this statement with examples.

= Computer networks can indeed reduce expenses for an office in several ways:
a. Resource Sharing:

By connecting multiple computers and devices to a network, resources such as printers, scanners, and storage devices can be shared among users. This reduces the need for each individual user to have their own dedicated resources, leading to cost savings on hardware and maintenance.


b. Centralized Services:

Networks allow for the centralization of services such as file storage, email, and internet access. Instead of each user having their own email server or internet connection, these services can be provided centrally, reducing costs associated with purchasing and maintaining multiple servers or connections.

c. Remote Access:

With a network in place, employees can access files, applications, and resources from remote locations, reducing the need for expensive business travel and facilitating remote work arrangements. This can lead to savings on travel expenses and office space.


d. Efficiency:

Computer networks enable streamlined communication and collaboration among employees, leading to increased productivity and efficiency. Tasks such as document sharing, project management, and scheduling can be handled more efficiently through networked systems, reducing operational costs.



4. What is local area network? Why are computers kept on the LAN?

= A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices within a limited geographical area, such as a home, office, or school. Computers are kept on LANs for easier sharing of resources like files, printers, and internet connections, as well as for communication between devices.


5. What is metropolitan area network? Why is it called composed of LANS
=
A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that covers a larger geographical area than a LAN but is still confined to a city or metropolitan area. It's composed of LANs because it connects multiple LANs within a city.


6. What is wide area network? Why is it called composed of LANs and MANS?

=
A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that spans a large geographical area, such as multiple cities or countries. It's called composed of LANs and MANs because it connects LANs within different locations, often across long distances.


7. Write the differences between client-server network and peer-to-pee network model.
=
In a client-server network model, clients request services or resources from servers. Servers are dedicated computers that provide services like file storage, email, or website hosting. In a peer-to-peer network model, all computers are considered equal and can act as both clients and servers, sharing resources directly without a dedicated server.


8. What is bus topology? List its advantages and disadvantages.

= In this topology, all devices are connected to a single cable called a bus. Advantages include simplicity of design and low cost, while disadvantages include the potential for network congestion and failure if the main cable fails.

 

9. What is ring topology? List its advantages and disadvantages.
=
In this topology, devices are connected in a circular manner, where each device is connected to two other devices forming a ring. Advantages include simplicity and equal access to the network, while disadvantages include the entire network being affected if one device fails and potential for network congestion.

10. What is star topology? List its advantages and disadvantages.

= In this topology, all devices are connected to a central hub or switch. Advantages include easy troubleshooting and scalability, while disadvantages include dependency on the central hub and potential for network congestion.

11. Define TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP and POP protocols

= TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the set of protocols used for internet communication.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is used for transmitting web pages over the internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used for transferring files between computers on a network.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is used for sending email, and

POP (Post Office Protocol) is used for retrieving email from a mail server.

C. Full form:-
1. STP - Shielded Twisted Pair
2. UTP - Unshielded Twisted Pair
3. NIC - Network Interface Card
4. LAN - Local Area Network
5. MODEM - Modulator-Demodulator
6. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
7. WAN - Wide Area Network
8. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
9. TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
10. SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
11. POP - Post Office Protocol
12. FTP - File Transfer Protocol
13. MAC - Media Access Control
14. ISP - Internet Service Provider


D. Technical Term:-
1. The transmission of data or information between computers:
=Data Communication


2. Transferring of data and information over significant distances:
=Wide Area Network (WAN)


3. Mode of transmission that transmits data in only one direction:
=Simplex


4. Mode of transmission that can alternately send and receive data:
=Half-duplex

5. Mode of transmission that can send and receive data simultaneously:
= Full-duplex

6. The data handling capacity of a communication system:
=Bandwidth

7. The amount of data transmitted per second through the communication channel:
= Data Rate

8. A group of interconnected computers:
= Network

9. A computer on a network:
=Node

10. A computer on the network that controls and provides resources:
= Server

11. A computer on the network that uses the resources of the network:
= Client

12. The computer that works stationontrol authority and regulates communication to other stations:
= Network Controller

13. A server computer that does not allow a user to perform application tasks on it:
= Dedicated Server

14. A server computer that allows a user to perform application tasks on it:

= Application Server


15. A server computer that provides files related services:

= File Server


16. A server that provides database services:

= Database Server


17. A server that provides internet services:

= Web Server


18. A card through which a computer is connected on the network: Network

= Interface Card (NIC)


19. A device that works like a physical interface between cabling and network nodes:

= Hub


20. A path through which data is transmitted from one computer to another:

= Data Transmission Path


21. The amount of data transmitted per second through a communication channel:

= Data Transfer Rate


22. The data handling capacity of a communication channel:

= Channel Capacity


23. A transmission media that uses network cables:

= Wired Media


24. A transmission medium that guides data along a specified path:

= Guided Media


25. The computer network which uses bounded media:

= Wired Network


26. A network of computers formed by using unguided media:

= Wireless Network


27. A transmission medium through which data are transmitted in the form of light:

= Optical Fiber


28. An operating system used in a server computer:

= Server Operating System


29. A network device that retransmits signals to all nodes on the network:

= Hub


30. A multiport repeater:

= Switch


31. A network device that retransmits signals to a destination node on the network:

= Switch


32. A network device that connects segments of the same or different networks having the same protocol:

= Router


33. A network device that can determine the best path for forwarding data packets:

= Router


34. A network device that joins networks having different protocols:

= Gateway


35. A device that converts digital signals into analog signals and vice versa:

= Modem


36. The conversion of digital signals into analog signals:

= Modulation


37. The conversion of analog signals into digital signals:

= Demodulation


38. A network of computers in a room, building, or campus:

= Local Area Network (LAN)


39. A computer network that is spread within a city or neighboring cities:

= Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


40. A network of computers that covers the whole world:

= Wide Area Network (WAN)


41. The network model where there is at least one server:

= Client-Server Model


42. The network model where each node has an equal right:

= Peer-to-Peer Model


43. The cabling pattern of interconnected nodes.
= Mesh Topology

 

44. The cabling pattern of computers where each computer is connected to a common cable in the linear format.
= Bus Topology


45. The cabling pattern of computers where all the nodes are connected in
a closed loop.
= Ring Topology


46. The cabling pattern of computers where each node is individually connected to a centrally located device.
= Star Topology


47. A set of rules by which computers on the network communicate with each other.
= Protocol

 

48. A native protocol of the Internet.
= TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)


49. A protocol that allows a user on one host to access and transfer files to another network.
= FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

 

50. A network protocol that transmits electronic mail from one server to another server.
= SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)


51. A network protocol that receives e-mail from an email server.
= POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)

 

52. Software that is used for surfing information through the internet.
= Web Browser


D. True or False:
1. In a communication system a sender generates or creates messages to be transferred.  

True

2. In the simplex, the transmission of data can take place in both directions. False

3. A full duplex device can send and receive data simultaneously at a time. True

4. A computer on the network can share hardware only.

False

5. A server acts as the controller, storehouse and distributor of data, information and programs.
True


6. A non-dedicated server does not allow a user to perform application tasks on it.

True


7. A dedicated server allows a user to perform application tasks on it.
False


8. Windows NT Server, Novell Netware Server and Windows XP are network operating systems.
True


9. The network can have only one workstation.
False


10 A workstation is the computer that uses the services of the network.
True


11. A node address of a NIC helps us to identify a computer on the network.
True


12. The high bandwidth channel is known as broadband channel.
True


13. A coaxial cable is used in Star topology.
False


14 Data are transmitted in the form of light in the fiber optic cable.
True


15. In the wired network, computers are connected with each other through wires.
True


16. Microwave signals travel in straight line and cannot pass through obstacles like buildings, hills, etc.
False


17. A hub is also called multiport repeater.
True


18. A switch reduces the network traffic and improves the network performance.
True


19. Multiple bridges can be used to form a large network by connecting several small networks.
True


20. A repeater is a network device that regenerates electric signals.
True


21. A NIC converts digital signals into analog signals and vice versa.
False


22. In the star topology computers must be arranged in the form of star.
False


23. A computer network that covers small local area is MAN
.
False


24. Internet is an example of WAN.
True


25. You can send messages from one computer to another computer on the network.

True

F. Choose the correct answer:
1. Which of the device is simplex?
a) Television

b) Telephone
c) Computer
d) None of the above

2. Walkie-Talkie is the example of.....
a) Simplex
b) Half Duplex
c) Full Duplex
d) None of the above

3. The term network basically refers to
a) Communication
b) Interconnection
c) Sharing
d) All of the above

4. The bandwidth of digital signal is measured in
a) Hertz
b) Cycle per second
c) Bits per second
d) None of the above.

5. The computer network enables us to share..........
a) Hardware
b) Data
c) Software
d) All of the above

6. Which is not network operating system?
a) Windows NT Server
b) Windows 98
c) Windows Server 2003
d) None of them

7. A workstation computer can have.......operating system.
a) Windows 98
b) Window NT Workstation
c) Windows XP
d) All of them

8. Which is not the guided medium?
a) UTP
b) STP
c) Microwave
d) Fiber optic cable

9. Which is the connector of UTP cable?
a) BNC
b) T-Connector
c) ST connector
d) RJ-45 connector

10. Which the network operating system used in a server computer?
a) Novell Netware Server

b) Windows Vista
c) Windows NT server.
d) All of them.

11. A dedicated server that manages printers and printing jobs is......
a) Network Server
b) Printer Server
c) Modem Server
d) File Server.

12. A networking device that joins multiple networks having different protocols is ....
a) Switch
b) Router
c) Gateway
d) Bridge

13. Which of the following is transmission medium?
a) FTP
b) UTP
c) SMTP
d) All of them


14. Which is not the network protocol?
a) TCP/IP
b) STP
c) FTP
d) SMTP

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