Operating System

2. Operating System

2.1. Introduction to Operating System

An operating system is a software program that acts as an intermediary between computer hardware and the user. It manages computer hardware and provides services and resources for various software applications. In essence, an operating system enables users to interact with and utilize the underlying hardware of a computer system.

2.2. Types of Operating System

1. Single-User, Single-Tasking OS:

These are simple operating systems that allow only one user to run one application at a time. Early personal computers often used such systems.


2. Single-User, Multi-Tasking OS:

These operating systems enable a single user to run multiple applications simultaneously. Most modern desktop operating systems fall into this category.


3. Multi-User OS:

These systems support multiple users concurrently. They are commonly found on servers and mainframes where multiple users need to access resources simultaneously.


4. Real-Time OS:

These operating systems are designed to respond to input and produce output in a predetermined amount of time. They are used in applications where timing is critical, such as industrial control systems.


5. Embedded OS:

These are specialized operating systems used in embedded systems, such as those found in appliances, smartphones, and other devices.


Operating systems play a crucial role in the functionality, stability, and usability of computer systems. They enable efficient resource utilization, user-friendly interfaces, and seamless interaction between hardware and software components

2.3. Functions of Operating Systems

1. Process Management:

The OS manages processes, which are instances of running programs. It handles process scheduling, allocation of system resources, and communication between processes.


2. Memory Management:

The OS is responsible for managing the computer's memory, including allocating and deallocating memory space for processes. It ensures efficient use of memory resources.


3. File System Management:

The OS manages files on storage devices, including hierarchical organization, storage allocation, access control, and data retrieval.


4. Device Management:

It manages communication between hardware devices and software applications. This involves handling device drivers, input/output operations, and ensuring proper device utilization.


5. User Interface:

The OS provides a user interface that enables users to interact with the computer system. This interface can be command-line based, graphical, or a combination of both.


6. Security and Access Control:

The OS enforces security measures, such as user authentication, authorization, and data encryption, to protect the system and user data.


7. Networking:

In modern computing environments, many operating systems include networking capabilities to facilitate communication between computers and sharing of resources.


8. Error Handling and Recovery:

The OS detects and manages errors that can occur during program execution. It provides mechanisms to recover from system crashes and errors.

2.4. Command Line operation (e.g. copy command, move command, command to view and set different file attributes, etc.)

Command-line operations are interactions with an operating system using text-based commands entered through a command-line interface (CLI). Here are some common command-line operations, along with examples of specific commands for Windows and Unix-like systems (e.g., Linux):

1. Copy Command:

The copy command is used to copy files or directories from one location to another.



copy source_file destination



Unix-like (Linux):


cp source_file destination


2. Move (Rename) Command:

The move (or rename) command is used to move or rename files or directories.




move source_file destination



Unix-like (Linux):


mv source_file destination



3. View File Contents:

To view the contents of a file in the command line, you can use the "cat" command on Unix-like systems and the "type" command on Windows.


Unix-like (Linux):


cat filename





type filename



4. File Attributes:

Commands to view and modify file attributes vary between Windows and Unix-like systems.


View File Attributes on Unix-like (Linux):


ls -l filename



View File Attributes on Windows:


attrib filename



Set File Attributes on Windows:


attrib +attribute filename



5. Directory Navigation:

Commands to navigate directories are similar across systems.


Change Directory (Unix-like and Windows):


cd directory_name



6. List Directory Contents:

Commands to list directory contents also have similarities.


List Contents of Current Directory (Unix-like and Windows):


ls (on Unix-like)

dir (on Windows)



7. Create Directory:

Commands to create a new directory are similar as well.


Create Directory (Unix-like and Windows):


mkdir directory_name



8. Remove (Delete) Command:

The remove (or delete) command removes files or directories.


Remove File (Unix-like and Windows):


rm filename (on Unix-like)

del filename (on Windows)



Remove Directory (Unix-like and Windows):


rm -r directory_name (on Unix-like)

rmdir /s /q directory_name (on Windows)



Please note that Unix-like commands are case-sensitive, and some commands may have additional options or variations depending on the specific operating system and shell being used. Always refer to the documentation for your specific operating system for accurate and up-to-date information.

2.5. Windows Operating System

Windows Operating System:

Windows is a family of operating systems developed by Microsoft. It is one of the most widely used operating systems for personal computers, servers, and mobile devices. The Windows operating system offers a graphical user interface (GUI) as well as a command-line interface (CLI) for managing and interacting with the system.


Key Versions of Windows:

Over the years, Microsoft has released various versions of the Windows operating system. Some of the notable versions include:


1. Windows 3.1/3.11: These versions introduced the Windows graphical interface and multitasking capabilities.


2. Windows 95/98/Me: These versions further improved the GUI, introduced the Start menu, and enhanced support for multimedia and networking.


3. Windows NT/2000: These versions marked the transition to a more stable and secure architecture. They were targeted at business and server environments.


4. Windows XP: A highly popular version known for its stability and user-friendly interface. It combined the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the more stable Windows NT/2000 architecture.


5. Windows Vista: Introduced a new visual design and improved security features, but it faced mixed reception due to compatibility and performance issues.


6. Windows 7: Regained popularity with improved performance, stability, and user interface refinements.


7. Windows 8/8.1: Introduced a touch-oriented interface and app platform, but faced criticism for its departure from traditional desktop paradigms.


8. Windows 10: A significant release that aimed to unify the user experience across different device types (desktops, tablets, phones) and introduced regular feature updates through the "Windows as a Service" model.


9. Windows 11: The successor to Windows 10, Windows 11 introduced a new centered Start menu, a redesigned taskbar, and various visual and usability enhancements.


Features of Windows Operating System:


- Graphical User Interface (GUI): Windows is known for its user-friendly GUI, which includes features like windows, icons, menus, and pointers (WIMP).


- Multitasking and Multi-User Support: Windows supports multitasking, allowing multiple applications to run simultaneously, and multi-user environments for shared use.


- File Management: Windows includes a file explorer that allows users to organize, copy, move, and manage files and folders.


- Device Compatibility: Windows has extensive driver support for a wide range of hardware devices, making it compatible with various peripherals.


- Networking: Windows supports networking capabilities for sharing resources, internet connectivity, and remote access.


- Security Features: Windows includes built-in security features such as user accounts, access control, firewall, antivirus, and encryption options.


- Microsoft Store: Starting with Windows 8, Microsoft introduced the Microsoft Store for downloading and installing apps.


- Cortana and Virtual Assistants: Windows 10 introduced Cortana, a virtual assistant that can perform tasks based on voice commands and search queries.


- Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL): Starting with Windows 10, Microsoft introduced WSL, allowing users to run Linux distributions alongside Windows applications.


- Gaming: Windows is a popular platform for gaming due to its extensive library of games and DirectX support.


Please note that the features and specifics may vary among different versions of Windows. Windows continues to evolve with each new version, aiming to provide a balance between familiarity and innovation for its users.

2.5.1. Introduction to Graphical User Interface (GUI)

A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a visual interface that allows users to interact with a computer system or software application using graphical elements such as icons, windows, menus, buttons, and dialog boxes. GUIs provide a more user-friendly and intuitive way to communicate with computers compared to traditional command-line interfaces.


Key Components of a GUI:

1. Windows: GUIs organize content into separate windows. Each window can display an application, document, or task. Users can manipulate windows by moving, resizing, minimizing, maximizing, and closing them.


2. Icons: Icons are small graphical symbols that represent files, folders, applications, or specific actions. Users can click on icons to open files or initiate actions.


3. Menus: Menus are lists of options and commands that are categorized under headings like "File," "Edit," "View," and so on. Users can select items from menus to perform tasks.


4. Buttons: Buttons are interactive elements that users can click to initiate actions or confirm choices.


5. Pointers: The mouse cursor, often referred to as a pointer, allows users to interact with the GUI by clicking on icons, buttons, and menu items.


6. Dialog Boxes: Dialog boxes are small windows that appear to prompt users for input or confirmation. They often contain text fields, checkboxes, and buttons.


7. Scroll Bars: Scroll bars appear in windows containing more content than can be displayed at once. Users can use scroll bars to navigate through the content.


8. Text Fields: Text fields allow users to input text, such as search queries or login credentials.


Advantages of GUI:

1. Ease of Use: GUIs are designed to be intuitive and user-friendly, making them accessible to a wider range of users.


2. Reduced Learning Curve: GUIs are more approachable for users who are not familiar with command-line interfaces, as they don't require knowledge of complex commands.


3. Visual Representation: Icons and images provide a visual representation of functions and actions, aiding in quick recognition and selection.


4. Multitasking: GUIs allow users to work with multiple applications concurrently, each in its own window.


5. Accessibility: GUIs can be designed with accessibility features like screen readers and magnification tools to cater to users with disabilities.


Disadvantages of GUI:


1. Resource Intensive: GUIs can consume more system resources compared to text-based interfaces, potentially affecting performance.


2. Complexity: GUIs can become complex, especially in applications with numerous features, which might lead to a steeper learning curve.


3. Limited Automation: GUI interactions are often manual and may not be as conducive to automation and scripting as command-line interfaces.


In summary, GUIs have become the standard interface for most modern operating systems and software applications due to their user-friendly nature and visual appeal. They provide a more intuitive way for users to interact with computers and perform tasks without the need for in-depth technical knowledge.

2.5.2. Basic Windows Elements - Desktop, Taskbar, My Computer, Recycle Bin,

1. Desktop:

The desktop is the graphical user interface area where you interact with your computer. It serves as the background and provides a workspace for your files, shortcuts, and applications. On the desktop, you can place icons, arrange files, and access various elements of the operating system.


2. Taskbar:

The taskbar is a horizontal bar typically located at the bottom of the screen. It provides quick access to various features and functions of the operating system. Key components of the taskbar include:


- Start Button: Located on the left side, the Start button opens the Start menu, which gives you access to programs, settings, documents, and more.


- Taskbar Icons: Icons for open or pinned applications are displayed on the taskbar. Clicking these icons allows you to switch between or launch applications.


- System Tray: The system tray on the right side of the taskbar displays icons for system notifications, such as volume control, Wi-Fi, and time/date.


3. My Computer (This PC):

My Computer (also known as This PC in newer Windows versions) is a window that provides access to your computer's drives, devices, and file system. You can use My Computer to navigate through your files, open drives, and manage connected devices.


4. Recycle Bin:

The Recycle Bin is a special folder where deleted files are temporarily stored before they are permanently removed from the system. It acts as a safety net, allowing you to restore files if you accidentally delete them. You can access the Recycle Bin from the desktop or through the File Explorer.


These basic Windows elements provide a foundation for navigating and interacting with the operating system. They allow you to access files, launch applications, manage system settings, and perform various tasks in a user-friendly manner.

2.5.3. Starting and shutting down Windows

Starting Windows:


1. Power On: Turn on your computer by pressing the power button.


2. Boot Screen: During the boot process, you might see your computer manufacturer's logo or a loading screen.


3. Login Screen: After the boot process, you'll reach the Windows login screen. Here, you'll need to select your user account and enter your password (if you've set one).


4. Desktop: Once you've logged in, you'll be taken to the desktop, where you can start using Windows and launching applications.


Shutting Down Windows:


There are different ways to shut down Windows:


Method 1: Using the Start Menu (Windows 10 and Windows 11):


1. Click on Start: Click the Start button located in the lower-left corner of the screen.


2. Click on Power: Click the power icon, which looks like a circle with a vertical line inside it.


3. Select Shut Down: Choose the "Shut down" option from the dropdown menu.


Method 2: Using the Alt+F4 Shortcut (Windows 7, 8, 10, and 11):


1. Desktop: Make sure you're on the desktop.


2. Press Alt+F4: Press the "Alt" and "F4" keys together on your keyboard. This will bring up a "Shut Down Windows" dialog.


3. Select Shut Down: In the dialog, choose "Shut down" from the dropdown list and click "OK."


Method 3: Using the Ctrl+Alt+Delete Menu (Windows 7, 8, and 10):


1. Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete: Press the "Ctrl," "Alt," and "Delete" keys simultaneously on your keyboard.


2. Choose Shut Down: In the menu that appears, click the power icon in the lower-right corner and select "Shut down."


Method 4: Using the Command Prompt (All Versions of Windows):


1. Open Command Prompt: Open the Command Prompt by searching for "cmd" in the Start menu.


2. Type Shutdown Command: In the Command Prompt window, type the command `shutdown /s /f /t 0` and press Enter. This will initiate an immediate shutdown.


- `/s`: Specifies the shutdown action.

- `/f`: Forces running applications to close without warning.

- `/t 0`: Sets the delay time before shutdown to 0 seconds.


Important Note: It's recommended to save your work before shutting down to avoid data loss.


After following these steps, Windows will shut down, and your computer will turn off or enter a powered-down state. Remember that the exact steps and options might vary slightly depending on the version of Windows you are using.

2.5.4. File Management with Windows Explorer

File management is a crucial aspect of using any operating system, and Windows Explorer (also known as File Explorer in newer versions of Windows) is the built-in file management tool in Windows. It allows you to navigate through your files, folders, and drives, and perform various file-related tasks. Here's an introduction to file management using Windows Explorer:

Opening Windows Explorer:

To open Windows Explorer (File Explorer), you can use one of the following methods:


- Press the `Win` + `E` keys together.

- Click on the File Explorer icon on the taskbar (usually a folder icon).

- Click on the Start button, type "File Explorer," and select the app from the search results.


Navigating through Folders:

Once you've opened Windows Explorer, you'll see a window displaying your file system. You can navigate through folders by double-clicking them or using the following options:


- Click on a folder to open it.

- Use the back and forward arrows in the upper-left corner to move between previously visited folders.

- Click on the address bar to manually enter a folder path or select a recent folder from the dropdown.


Managing Files and Folders:

Windows Explorer allows you to perform various tasks related to files and folders:


- Creating a New Folder: Right-click in the folder area, select "New," and then choose "Folder." You can then name the folder.


- Copying and Moving Files/Folders: Select the file(s) or folder(s), right-click, and choose "Copy" or "Cut." Navigate to the destination folder, right-click, and select "Paste."


- Renaming Files/Folders: Right-click on a file or folder, select "Rename," and then type the new name.


- Deleting Files/Folders: Select the file(s) or folder(s), press the `Delete` key, or right-click and choose "Delete."


- Restoring Deleted Files from Recycle Bin: Open the Recycle Bin, select the file(s) or folder(s) you want to restore, right-click, and choose "Restore."


- Searching for Files: Use the search bar in the top-right corner to search for specific files or folders by name or keywords.


- Sorting and Arranging: Click on the column headers in the file list to sort files by name, date modified, size, and other attributes. You can also change the view mode (icons, details, list, etc.).


- File Properties: Right-click on a file or folder, select "Properties," to view details such as file size, creation date, and permissions.


Copying Paths:

To copy the path of a file or folder:


1. Navigate to the file or folder.

2. Hold down the `Shift` key and right-click on the item.

3. Choose "Copy as Path." The path will be copied to your clipboard.


Windows Explorer (File Explorer) is a powerful tool for managing your files and organizing your data. It allows you to easily navigate your file system, perform file-related tasks, and keep your files organized.

2.5.5. Windows applications: (Control Panel, Character Map, Paint)

Windows provides a variety of built-in applications that serve different purposes. Here are explanations for some common built-in applications:

1. Control Panel:

The Control Panel is a centralized utility in Windows that allows users to manage system settings and configure various aspects of their computer. While Windows 10 and Windows 11 are moving toward using the Settings app, the Control Panel is still available in these versions for more advanced settings. Here are some tasks you can perform using the Control Panel:


- Adjust display settings.

- Manage hardware and devices.

- Install or uninstall programs.

- Set up user accounts and security settings.

- Configure network settings.

- Customize the appearance and personalization.


2. Character Map:

Character Map is a utility that allows you to view and insert special characters and symbols that might not be readily available on your keyboard. This is useful for tasks like inserting accented characters, mathematical symbols, and various other characters into documents and text fields.


To open Character Map:


- Press the `Win` + `R` keys to open the Run dialog.

- Type "charmap" and press Enter.


In the Character Map window, you can select characters, copy them to the clipboard, and then paste them into your documents.


3. Paint:

Paint is a simple graphics application that comes with Windows. While it's not as advanced as professional graphics software, Paint is useful for basic image editing tasks, such as cropping, resizing, drawing, and adding text to images.


To open Paint:


- Click on the Start button.

- Type "Paint" and select the app from the search results.


In Paint, you can create new images, open existing images, and perform basic editing tasks using tools like brushes, shapes, text, and color selection.


These built-in Windows applications provide users with a range of tools to manage system settings, work with special characters, and perform basic image editing tasks without the need for third-party software. Keep in mind that the user interface and features of these applications may vary slightly between different versions of Windows.

2.5.6. Finding files of folders and saving the result

Searching for files and folders in Windows is a common task, and the built-in search functionality makes it easy to locate specific items. Here's how you can find files or folders and save the search results:

Searching for Files or Folders:

1. Open File Explorer (Windows Explorer): You can open File Explorer by pressing `Win` + `E` or by clicking the File Explorer icon on the taskbar.

2. Use the Search Box: In the top-right corner of the File Explorer window, you'll find a search box. Click inside it and start typing the name or part of the name of the file or folder you're looking for.

3. View Search Results: As you type, Windows will start displaying search results that match your query. The results will appear below the search box.

4. Filter Search Results: You can further refine your search by using filters like "Date modified," "Size," and more. These filters appear under the search box after you initiate a search.

5. Open or Navigate to the File/Folder: Click on a search result to open or navigate to the file or folder you've found.


Saving Search Results:

To save search results in Windows, you can use the "Save search" feature. This creates a saved search that you can run again in the future without needing to re-enter search criteria.

1. Perform the Search: Follow the steps above to perform your search and make sure you're seeing the search results you want to save.

2. Click on "Save search" in the Search Tools: After performing the search, you should see "Search tools" at the top of the File Explorer window. Click on it to expand the menu.

3. Select "Save search" from the Menu: From the "Search tools" menu, select "Save search" to open the "Save As" dialog.

4. Choose a Location and Name: In the "Save As" dialog, choose where you want to save the search file and give it a name.

5. Click "Save": Click the "Save" button to save the search.


Once you've saved the search, you'll have a file with a .search-ms extension that you can double-click to run the search again in the future. This can be especially useful for frequently performed searches.


Remember that Windows search is quite powerful, allowing you to search for various attributes, content within files, and more. The ability to save search results makes it easier to revisit the same search criteria later.

2.5.7. Starting a program by command line operation

Starting a program using command-line operations in Windows involves using the "Command Prompt" utility. Here's how you can do it:

1. Open Command Prompt:

You can open the Command Prompt by searching for "cmd" in the Start menu and clicking on the "Command Prompt" app that appears.


2. Navigate to the Program's Directory (Optional):

If the program you want to run is located in a specific directory, navigate to that directory using the `cd` (Change Directory) command. For example, if the program is in the "C:\Program Files\MyProgram" directory, you can use:



cd C:\Program Files\MyProgram



3. Run the Program:

To run a program, you typically need to know the executable file's name. If the program's executable is "myprogram.exe," you can run it by typing:






If the program's executable is in a different directory, provide the full path:






4. Providing Arguments (Optional):

Some programs require command-line arguments to function properly. You can provide these arguments after the program's name:



myprogram argument1 argument2




Let's say you have a text editor called "textedit.exe" located in "C:\Program Files\TextEdit." Here's how you might run it from the Command Prompt:


1. Open Command Prompt.

2. Navigate to the directory if necessary:



cd "C:\Program Files\TextEdit"



3. Run the program:






If the program accepts arguments, you can provide them as needed:



textedit file.txt



Please note that the steps and details might vary depending on the specific program you're trying to run and its command-line options. Always refer to the program's documentation for accurate usage instructions.

2.5.8. Changing window settings: Adding/Removing programs; Clearing the contents of document menu; Customizing the taskbar; Control panel items

Windows provides various settings and options to customize your experience, including adding/removing programs, clearing document menu contents, customizing the taskbar, and accessing Control Panel items. Here's how you can perform these actions:

1. Adding/Removing Programs:

- Adding Programs: To add programs, you generally install them using their setup or installation files. You can often download these files from the internet or use installation media (CDs, USB drives, etc.).


- Removing Programs: To remove programs, you can use the "Add or Remove Programs" (Windows XP) or "Programs and Features" (Windows 7, 8, 10, 11) utility:


  - Press `Win` + `R` to open the Run dialog.

  - Type "appwiz.cpl" and press Enter. This opens the "Programs and Features" window.

  - Select the program you want to remove and click "Uninstall."


2. Clearing Document Menu Contents:

If you're referring to recent documents in the File Explorer or Start menu, you can clear these lists:


- File Explorer Recent Documents: Open File Explorer, click on the "View" tab, then click on "Options" and "Change folder and search options." Under the "Privacy" section, click "Clear" next to "Clear File Explorer history."


- Start Menu Recent Documents: Right-click the taskbar, select "Taskbar settings," and under "Notification area," click "Turn system icons on or off." Toggle off "Show recently opened items in Jump Lists on Start or the taskbar."


3. Customizing the Taskbar:

- Resize and Move: You can resize the taskbar by clicking and dragging its top edge. You can also move it to different edges of the screen.


- Pinning Apps: Right-click an app icon, select "Pin to taskbar," to add it to the taskbar for easy access.


- Unpinning Apps: Right-click an app icon on the taskbar and select "Unpin from taskbar" to remove it.


- Taskbar Settings: Right-click an empty area on the taskbar and select "Taskbar settings." Here, you can customize various taskbar-related options.


4. Accessing Control Panel Items:

In newer versions of Windows (Windows 10, 11), the Control Panel is being phased out in favor of the Settings app. However, you can still access some Control Panel items:


- Open the Start menu, type the name of the Control Panel item you want to access, and click on the search result.


Remember that the steps and options might vary slightly depending on the version of Windows you're using. Always refer to the official documentation or support resources for your specific version of Windows for the most accurate instructions.

2.5.9. Creating shortcut (icons) on desktop

Method 1: Using the Right-Click Menu:

1. Locate the Item: Identify the file, folder, program, or setting for which you want to create a shortcut.

2. Right-Click: Right-click on the item.

3. Select "Create Shortcut": From the context menu, select "Create shortcut." This will create a shortcut icon on your desktop.

4. Customize the Shortcut (Optional): Right-click the shortcut icon and select "Properties." You can change the icon, provide a more descriptive name, and set other properties.


Method 2: Using Drag and Drop:

1. Locate the Item: Identify the item you want to create a shortcut for.

2. Drag and Drop: Click and hold the left mouse button on the item, drag it to your desktop, and release the mouse button. This will create a shortcut icon.


Method 3: Using Send To Menu:

1. Locate the Item: Identify the item you want to create a shortcut for.

2. Right-Click: Right-click on the item.

3. Hover over "Send to": Hover your mouse over the "Send to" option.

4. Select "Desktop (create shortcut)": From the sub-menu, click on "Desktop (create shortcut)." This will create a shortcut icon on your desktop.


Accessing the Shortcut:

Once you've created the shortcut, you can simply double-click on the icon to quickly access the associated item, program, or folder.


Remember that having too many icons on your desktop can make it cluttered. It's a good idea to organize your shortcuts into folders or group them logically to keep your desktop tidy and easy to navigate.

2.5.10. System tools: disk scanning, disk defragmenter, backup, restore, format

1. Disk Scanning (Check Disk):

Disk scanning is a utility that checks the integrity of your hard drive and identifies and fixes errors on the disk's file system. This tool is used to detect and repair issues that could potentially lead to data loss or system instability.


To run a disk scan:

1. Open Command Prompt as an administrator.

2. Type `chkdsk C:` (replace "C:" with the drive letter you want to scan) and press Enter.

3. The tool will scan the drive and report any errors it finds. You might be prompted to schedule a scan for the next restart if the drive is in use.


2. Disk Defragmenter:

Disk Defragmenter is a tool that reorganizes the data on your hard drive to optimize its performance. Over time, files can become fragmented, leading to slower read and write speeds. Disk Defragmenter rearranges these files to improve access times.


To run Disk Defragmenter:

1. In the Start menu, type "Defragment and Optimize Drives" and select the app.

2. Select the drive you want to optimize and click "Optimize."


3. Backup and Restore (Windows 7):

Windows 7 included a backup and restore utility that allowed you to create backups of your important files and create system images. However, in newer versions of Windows (Windows 8, 10, 11), Microsoft introduced the more advanced "File History" and "Backup and Restore (Windows 7)" is no longer the primary backup tool.


4. File History (Windows 8, 10, 11):

File History is a feature that automatically backs up your personal files to an external drive or network location. It allows you to restore previous versions of your files if they are lost, damaged, or deleted.


5. System Restore (Windows 8, 10, 11):

System Restore allows you to revert your computer's state to a previous point in time, effectively undoing changes that might have caused system instability or errors. It does not affect personal files but can impact installed applications and system settings.


6. Formatting a Drive:

Formatting a drive erases all the data on it and prepares it for use. It's a necessary step when you want to reinstall the operating system, prepare a new drive, or remove all data from a drive.


To format a drive:

1. Open File Explorer.

2. Right-click the drive you want to format and select "Format."

3. Choose the file system (usually NTFS), allocation unit size, and volume label.

4. Click "Start" to begin the formatting process.


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