Primary English


Q. What are the stages of teaching writing? Describe them in short.

= Writing is the process of representing language with Symbols of letters. Writing is expressing our feelings or emotions of wishes in print. Teaching writing means helping the learners to represent language with letters or symbols. There are five Stages of teaching writing or teaching writing. They are described below in short:

1) Copying

·        This is the first stage of development of writing

·        In copying, student write exactly what is given to them.

·        This is mechanical

·        First they copy lines, curve them. they copy word, phases etc

·        Finally, they copy sentences and Paragraph

·        This trains them in handwriting.

2) Reproduction

·        This is the second stage of development of writing

·        Here students reproduce what they have orally practiced or read without changing.

·        They write from memory.

·        They write sentences they have memorized, read and copied

·        The activities for reproduction are dictation, jumbled words/ sentences etc

3) Recombination

·        This is the third stage of the development of writing

·        Here, the students reproduce what they have already learned with minor changes.

·        They understand the meaning of what they do

·        The activities for recombination Stage are Substituting of words and phrases, transforming sentences, correcting mistakes, rearranging etc

4) Guided writing

·        This is the fourth stage of the development of writing

·        Here, the students are given outlines clues. Skeletons and ask to develop them into Fuller text with understanding

·        The students are free to choose the lexical items

·        They use the outlines to write their own stories.

·        The activities for guided writing are rewriting dialogue, retelling story in written form, rearranging the sentences, describing Places, Parallel writing etc

5) Free writing:

·        This is the fifth stage of the development of writing

·        Here, the students are free to express their ideas on any topic.

·        They are given a topic without any outline to write

·        The activities for free writing are essay writing, report writing, letter writing etc.

writing is expressing our feeling or emotions of wishes in point copying, Reproduction, Recombination, Guided writing and free writing are the stages of teaching writing.

 Q. What are the problems related to teaching listening and speaking skill? How do you save them as a teacher?

= Listening and speaking are primary language skills. Listening is receptive language skill whereas Speaking is productive language Skill. The main aim of teaching listening and speaking skill is to develop communicative competence and performance of the learners. 

The problems related to teaching Listening and speaking skills are given below:

 1) Multi-lingual learners background speaking

2) Hesitations of learners to involve in related communicative activities

3) Lack of native like Speaker teacher

4) Lack of exposure of target language English is taught through translations into mother tongue

5) Correctness is focused rather than appropriateness. So, the learners can't be a fluent to develop their fluency. The learners have fear of committing mistakes.

 To save these problems, a language teacher can apply the following strategies and teaching techniques.

1) Involve the students in communicative language games, songs, rhymes and so on

2) Allow the teaching techniques like role play, dramatization, simulation, information gap activities and so on.

3) Provide enough exposure of target language through language games, audio and Video, Pictures

4) Encourage learners for natural learning and appropriate use of language through communication.

5) Develop the habit of sharing through group discussion in your classroom.

                 Listening and speaking are obligatory language skill. We have to develop listening and speaking skill of the learners through communicative activities.

 Q. Describe four language skills briefly

=Language means communication. It is the medium of expression our thoughts and feeling. There are four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Listening and speaking are primary Language skills because generally we start to learn Language from Listening and speaking. Listening help us to perceive message whereas speaking help us to convey message orally.

Reading and writing are secondary language Skill because we start read and write after listening and speaking. Listening is perceptive Language skills whereas speaking is productive language Skill.

For encoding and decoding message four language Skills are necessary. While teaching language, all language skills should be linked each other. The development of four language skills helps us to transmit culture and civilization. Listening, Speaking, reading and writing are essential skills in teaching language we have to teach them Communicably.

Q. Define language function and find out the language functions of given each exponents.

1) could you stop talking?

2) may I go out?

3) You had better study hard

4) Hello, good morning

5) You have to spend your days in Pokhara. It's Lovely

6) I have never discussed with my teacher.

7) Excuse me

8) You Can go out if you like

9) Cheers!

10) Happy birthday to you.

= Language function refers to the purpose for which the language is used. It is also defined as the active use of language for specific Purpose. For example, if you are thirsty, you request for water.

Please, give me a glass of water.

There are many functions of language for example.

Exponents                       Function

Good morning sir                      greeting

Bye Bye!                                  Farewell

Sorry                                        Expressing

You should work hard               suggesting

     The language functions of each exponent are given below:

Exponents                                                                         Functions

1) could you stop talking?                                                Asking for request

2) may I go out?                                                              Asking for permission

3) You had better study hard                                            suggesting  

4) Hello, good morning                                                    greeting

5) You have to spend your days in Pokhara. It's Lovely     recommending      

6) I have never discussed with my teacher.                       Expressing experience

7) Excuse me                                                                  attracting attention

8) You Can go out if you like                                           giving permission  

9) Cheers!                                                                       Proposing a toast  

10) Happy birthday to you.                                              Expressing wishes 

         Language functions help everyone to achieve their goal through expression. The teacher should link with daily life activities while teaching language functions.

Q. Define deductive and inductive approaches to teaching grammar and list at least five. differences between them.

= There are two approaches to teaching grammar. They are deductive and inductive approaches. The deductive approach refers to the approach to teaching grammar in which rules are Presented and the language is produced based on the learned rules. This approach to teaching grammar. This approach involves the application of rules. The general steps of this approach to teaching gramma are the Presentations of rules, description of rules, Presentation of Supporting examples, the practice of rules orally or in writing form and memorization of rules.

 The inductive approach refers to the approach to teaching grammar in which examples are presented first and students try to infer the rules This approach is the example first approach to teaching grammar. It makes the use of communicative activities in the class room. The general steps of this approach are the presentation of examples, observation and analysis of examples, generalization and formation of rules, and verification application of rules.

The differences between deductive and inductive:

Deductive Approach

Inductive Approach

1. Old / Traditional method

1. New Scientific/innovative method

2. Intellectual activities are used

2. Communicative activities are used

3. Teacher’s role is active

3. Teacher's rove is just to facilitate the learners

4. Passive role of Students

4. Student's role is active

5. Application of rules

5. Generalization of rules.

In short, deductive approach is rule first approach and inductive approach is example first approach to teaching grammar. In deductive approach rules are followed by examples whereas in inductive approaches examples are followed by observation and analysis

 Q. What is noun? list the types of nouns with examples. And design two activities to teach nouns at the Primary Level.

= A noun is a naming word that refers to a person. animal, thing, idea, quality action etc. For example: John, cow, bag, justice, beauty arrival etc.

Different types of nouns are given below with example

a) Proper Noun:

·        It refers to a particular person, place, thing.

·        For example: Ram, Kathmandu, bag etc.

b) Common Noun:

·        It refers to the class of person, place, thing.

·        For example: student, village, book etc.

c) Collective Noun:

·        It refers to a group of people, thing, Place etc

·        For example: class, team family etc.

d) Material Noun:

·        It refers to the material of substance from which things of objects are made.

·        For example: gold, plastic, iron etc.

e) Abstract Noun:

·        It refers to an intangible idea, feeling emotions, quality etc

·        For example: love beauty danger etc.

Noun can be countable uncountable, singular, Plural etc

Two activities to teach nouns at the primary level described below in short

1. Sorting Common nouns into the categories of People, things and places.

Ø Here, the teacher writes some common nouns on board and tell the students to list them under the heading people, place and things

Teacher: doctor book temple, school, table, teacher, etc.

Student: The student list common nouns as











2. Noun Hunt

Ø Here, the students are asked to find a certain type of noun. For example, they may be asked to find proper noun common nouns, or abstract nouns in the book they are reading.

       Nouns are naming words They can be proper, common, Collective, material, abstract. Etc. Underlining the noun in the text, sorting Proper or common nouns, nouns hunt etc are some activities to teach nouns at the Primary level.

 What activities do you conduct to develop speaking skill to your students of Grade V?

Ans: Speaking is one of the important skills of language. This skill is very important or communication speaking refers to expressing one ideas, emotion and feeling through the oral medium of language. We can teach speaking at primary level by going following states:

1) Presentation

2) Practice

3) Production.

Any four activities in teaching speaking skills are given below:

1) Role play

It is an activity which can be used to make the students use language and thereby develop spoken skill. In this technique students are provided a role card I which their role is mentioned. Use appropriate language and perform their role. The students can play the role of a teachr4 and students, shopkeeper and customer.

2) Group discussion:

Group discussion is important technique for speaking skill. In this technique, first of all, teacher performs short presentation on the topic. Then divide the class into different groups and arrange their seating and asks to discuss. The time should be fixed for discussion.

3) Story telling:

The students are asked to tell a story have recently read/heard from any source. The students tell try in their technique. So teacher should not interrupt the students for mistakes while telling the story.

4) Describing maps/charts/pictures:

Students can take part in varieties of language activities related pictures, maps posters, real objects etc for teaching speaking skills in the classroom. Students can doe describing pictures, comparing the pictures, giving instructions, giving directions and so on. This activity can be done either individually, or in pairs, or in group.

 What problems did you face to teach English language at primary level? Write in brief. Write some suggestions for solving the problems.

Ans: English language is the global medium of communication. It is the most important and rich west language of the world. English is learnt and taught as a second language in Nepalese school. Naturally learning a second language is more complex. There are many difficulties of English

 Language teaching in primary level-which are given below:

1) Lack of trained teachers.

2) Use of traditional teacher centre and lectural method.

3) Psychologically English is felt as difficult subject.

4) To divert exam oriented teaching practice into goal.

5) Use of formative evaluation apart from summative evaluation.

 Following suggestion can be beneficial for solving the above mentioned difficulties.

1) Students centered communicative methods should be used in the classroom.

2) Make adequate supplementary learning material

3) Provide and use audio, audio visual materials.

4) Make resourceful class room in english.

5) All language skills should be focused equally.

6) Locally available low cost no cost materials should be constructed and used in language teaching.

What are the objectives of teaching vocabulary in primary level? Describe appropriate activities so achieve those objectives.

Ans: Vocabulary are the collection of word which is used to express sour feeling, sentiments sorrows, joys& so on. The objective of teaching vocabulary in primary level are:

·        To prepare students to develop the vocabulary power.

·        Help them in expressing their views, feelings thouts and emotions clrly.

·        To develop vocabulary pronunciation skills.

·        To solidify their English language.

·        To achieve the above mentioned objectives teacher has to conduct various of activities.

To fulfill the objectives of teaching vocabulary, a teacher can do the given activities: 

1) Use of real things

The teacher use the real things in classroom to teach vocabulary. Us of real thing make the classroom interesting. For eg to teach fruit items the teach can display a apple, orange, banana grapes, etc.

 2) Use of Dictionary

A dictionary is a collection of words in which we can find the meaning of words. The teacher has to teach use a dictionary from which the students can learn their vocabulary.

3) Use of pictures

A picture speaks more than a thousand words. The teacher should show the picture to teach vocabulary. For eg picture of Elephant, lake, temple, tiger, Doctor etc.

In this way we can teach the vocabulary in primary level.

 “The english classroom has a happy atmosphere where the children hear and speak English in natural way through a variety of activities". Explain with suitable examples.

Ans: The statement "English classroom should have a happy atmosphere where the children hear and speak english in natural way through a variety of activities" indicates the student should be taught in entertaining environment. Various types of student centered activities can be conducted to create happy atmosphere in the classroom. Some of them with example are given below:

 1. Story telling:

The teacher tells a moral story.

Teacher asks some questions during story telling to attract student's attention. Then, he/she asks the students to tell the moral of the story.

 2. Role Play:

The students are given instruction what to do.

Then students play role according to their role.

 3. Rhymes and action song The teacher prepares students to sing song he/she sings as model and students are asked to follow him.

After that he/she calls good student to sing.

Make a list of activities to teach language functions in grade five. Mention any five teaching materials along with their use for teaching langauge functions.

Ans: A function of language refers to the purpose for which a statement or unit of language is used. Language function is the purpose behind the use of particular piece of language. Language function are often described as categories of behaviour. For example: Greeting, requesting, commanding, offering etc. Our primary level English curriculum has been designed on the basis of communicative function. So, it is functional curriculum. Some major teaching activities of teaching language function are listed below:

·        Group work and pair work

·        Role play

·        Information gap

·        Problem solving activities

·        Question answer

·        Demonstration

·        Guessing game

·        Dialogues

·        Using picture, map/paragraph.

·        Providing situations.

The teaching materials used in the classroom for teaching language functions are

 1. Dictionary:

Dictionaries contains a wealth of information about words not only what they mean but also how they operate. A dictionary doesn't only tell the meaning of a word. It also tells the grammar, pronunciation and stress. For example, listen: /'lis(a)n/ verb, noun. So, student should be encouraged to use the dictionary by the teacher.

 2. Flashcard:

By the use of flashcard, we can make the students learn pronunciation, synonyms antonyms, translation of example, sentences and drawings.

 3. Films or short dialogue/speech videos:

The use of films, short dialogue or speed videos make the language process more entertaining and enjoyable. It provides students with example of English used in real life situations. It also exposes students to natural expressions and natural flow of speech.

 4. Language labs:

Language labs is the way of presenting dialogue/conversation between two people with the help of projector/smart TV. After the completion of video, the work sheet will be given to students related to conversation.

 5. Tape recorder:

Tape recorder are often used for teaching English language function in classroom. Listening to tapes provides students not only about vocabulary and grammar but also about pronunciation, rhythm, stress and pitch.

Primary English 

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